EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

laevo-leucine
4-methyl-L-norvaline

Supplier Sponsors

Name:(2S)-2-amino-4-methylpentanoic acid
CAS Number: 61-90-5Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:200-522-0
FDA UNII:GMW67QNF9C
Nikkaji Web:J1.167C
Beilstein Number:1721722
MDL:MFCD00002617
CoE Number:10482
XlogP3:-1.50 (est)
Molecular Weight:131.17501000
Formula:C6 H13 N O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:special dietary and nutritional additives
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
GRN 308 L-leucine View-notice PDF
GRN 523 l-leucine View-notice PDF
JECFA Food Flavoring:1423 L-leucine
FLAVIS Number:17.012 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:17.012 L-leucine
DG SANTE Food Additives:L-leucine
FEMA Number:3297 L-leucine
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm: L-LEUCINE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart D--Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives
Sec. 172.320 Amino acids.


FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart I--Multipurpose Additives
Sec. 172.804 Aspartame.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Melting Point: 293.00 to 294.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 563.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.031000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point:> 230.00 °F. TCC ( > 110.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 0.799 (est)
Soluble in:
 alcohol, slightly
 water, 1.538e+004 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 water, 2.15E+04 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
 alcohol
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Strength:none
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. odorless
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antistatic agents
hair conditioning
skin conditioning
 
Suppliers:
Aceto
L-Leucine
AIDP
L-Leucine 98.5%-101.5%
Ajinomoto USA
AjiGras-Leucine
Flavor: characteristic
As the first GRAS approved amino acid, AjiGras-Leucine from Ajinomoto can open impressive possibilities for your product line. With AjiGras-Leucine, you can confidently make specific health claims. Leucine is not only a constituent of protein but emerging research demonstrates that leucine is a signaling compound for the stimulation of protein synthesis. During exercise, weight loss, and even aging, significant quantities of protein are lost. AjiGras-Leucine in your product can help prevent or reduce the amount of protein lost by stimulating protein synthesis. The potential benefits to your customers are faster muscle recovery, muscle repair, increased speed of healing, more energy, and overall wellness.
Ajinomoto USA
AjiPure™ Leucine
Flavor: characteristic
Manufactured under cGMP conditions using no materials of animal origin.
Ajinomoto USA
L-Leucine
Flavor: characteristic
L-leucine is an essential amino acid, which means the body does not manufacture L-leucine, and it must be acquired through diet or supplementation. The male adult’s daily requirement is 14 mg per kg of body weight. It is one of the branched chain amino acids, along with L-isoleucine and L-valine. Supplementation should be combined with the other two branched chains. Food sources for L-leucine are meat, almonds, cashews, eggs, fish, chicken, lentils and liver.
Anhui Haibei
L-Leucine
Atlantic Chemicals
L-Leucine
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
L-Leucine
Charkit Chemical
LEUCINE, L- (INSTANT)
Charkit Chemical
LEUCINE, L-
ECSA Chemicals
L-Leucine
Company Profile
Foodchem International
L-Leucine
Glentham Life Sciences
L-Leucine
Graham Chemical
L-Leucine
Jiangyin Healthway
L-Leucine
New functional food ingredients
Penta International
L-LEUCINE FCC, Kosher
Penta International
L-LEUCINE NATURAL, Kosher
Prinova
L-Leucine FCC; USP
Risun Ingredients
L-Leucine USP,AJI,FCC
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Leucine, 99%, FG
Certified Food Grade Products
Zhong Ya Chemical
L-Leucine
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-rat LD50 5379 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Vol. 58, Pg. 253, 1955.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-rabbit LDLo 2620 mg/kg
Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 40, Pg. 313, 1898.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: special dietary and nutritional additives
Recommendation for laevo-leucine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 12.00 (μg/capita/day)
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 5
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -50.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -50.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: -50.00000
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: -50.00000
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: -50.00000
hard candy: --
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: -50.00000
milk products: -50.00000
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: -50.00000
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Amino acids from chemical group 34 Flavouring Group Evaluation 26, Revision 1 - Scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 29 (FGE29)[1] - Substance from the priority list: Vinylbenzene from chemical group 31 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 79, (FGE.79)[1] - Consideration of amino acids and related substances evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to amino acids from chemical group 34 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.26Rev1 (2008)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Report of EFSA on the risk assessment of salts of authorised acids, phenols or alcohols for use in food contact materials [1]
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of the use of amino acids (chemical group 34) when used as flavourings for all animal species
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 49, Revision 1 (FGE.49Rev1): xanthine alkaloids from the priority list
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Daily Med:search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):61-90-5
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :6106
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
(2S)-2-amino-4-methylpentanoic acid
Chemidplus:0000061905
RTECS:OH2850000 for cas# 61-90-5
 
References:
 (2S)-2-amino-4-methylpentanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:61-90-5
Pubchem (cid):6106
Pubchem (sid):134971361
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00123
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00687
FooDB:FDB001946
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB00387
Export Tariff Code:2922.49.4050
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
 
Potential Uses:
 antistatic agents
 hair conditioning
 skin conditioning
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
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 bean black bean sprout
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 coriander fruit
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 coriander leaf
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 coriander seed
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 corn seed
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 cowpea seed
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 cucumber fruit
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 currant black currant fruit juice
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 date palm fruit
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 dill seed
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 eggplant fruit
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 endive leaf
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 evening-primrose seed
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 fenugreek leaf
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 fig fruit
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 garlic bulb
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 goosefoot leaf
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 gourd calabash gourd fruit
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 grape fruit
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 guava fruit
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 guava strawberry guava fruit
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 kohlrabi stem
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 leek wild leek plant
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 lentil seed
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 lentil sprout
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 lettuce lamb's lettuce plant
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 lettuce leaf
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 lotus indian lotus rhizome
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 lotus indian lotus seed
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 lupin white lupin seed
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 lupine white lupine seed
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 macadamia nut
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 mallow jew's mallow leaf
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 mandarin fruit
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 mango fruit
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 marango shoot
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 melon bitter melon seed
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 onion bulb
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 orange fruit
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 papaya fruit
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 pea black-eyed pea seed
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 pea fruit
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 pea pigeon pea seed
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 pea seed
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 pea shoot
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 peach fruit
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 peanut seed
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 pear fruit
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 pepper bell pepper fruit
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 peppermint leaf
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 pigweed leaf
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 pine pinyon pine seed
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 pineapple fruit
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 pistachio nut
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 plum fruit
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 poppy opium poppy seed
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 potato sweet potato root
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 potato tuber
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 purslane herb
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 radish root
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 rice hay
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 rosemary leaf
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 rye seed
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 saffron bulb
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 sesame seed
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 shea tree seed
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 sorrel west african sorrel leaf
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 soybean seed
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 soybean shoot
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 spearmint leaf
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 spinach indian spinach leaf
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 spinach leaf
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 spinach plant
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 spinach water spinach leaf
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 squash summer squash fruit
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 strawberry guava fruit
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 taro root
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 yam mountain yam root
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Synonyms:
 ajigras-leucine
 ajipure leucine
(2S)-2-amino-4-methyl pentanoic acid
(S)-2-amino-4-methyl pentanoic acid
2-amino-4-methyl pentanoic acid
laevo-(-)-2-amino-4-methyl pentanoic acid
(S)-2-amino-4-methyl valeric acid
2-amino-4-methyl valeric acid
(2S)-2-amino-4-methylpentanoic acid
(S)-2-amino-4-methylpentanoic acid
L-(-)-2-amino-4-methylpentanoic acid
(2S)-a-2-amino-4-methylvaleric acid
(S)-2-amino-4-methylvaleric acid
alpha-aminoisocaproic acid
L-a-aminoisocaproic acid
L-alpha-aminoisocaproic acid
laevo-alpha-aminoisocaproic acid
(2S)-a-leucine
(S)-leucine
(S)-(+)-leucine
L-leucine
L-(+)-leucine
L-leucine FCC
l-leucine fcc; usp
L-leucine natural
4-methyl-L-norvaline
 

Articles:

PubMed:Amino acids and peptides activate at least five members of the human bitter taste receptor family.
PubMed:Strategies to select yeast starters cultures for production of flavor compounds in cacha├ža fermentations.
PubMed:An improved bioprocess for extracellular L-leucine amino peptidase production using Streptomyces gedanensis.
PubMed:Kokumi-active glutamyl peptides in cheeses and their biogeneration by Penicillium roquefortii.
PubMed:Molecular and sensory characterization of gamma-glutamyl peptides as key contributors to the kokumi taste of edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).
PubMed:Improved production of isoamyl acetate by a sake yeast mutant resistant to an isoprenoid analog and its dependence on alcohol acetyltransferase activity, but not on isoamyl alcohol production.
PubMed:Genetic and physiological analysis of branched-chain alcohols and isoamyl acetate production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Conversion of L-leucine to isovaleric acid by Propionibacterium freudenreichii TL 34 and ITGP23.
PubMed:ZnCl2-mediated practical protocol for the synthesis of Amadori ketoses.
PubMed:Involvement of Val 315 located in the C-terminal region of thermolysin in its expression in Escherichia coli and its thermal stability.
PubMed:Effects of conversion of the zinc-binding motif sequence of thermolysin, HEXXH, to that of dipeptidyl peptidase III, HEXXXH, on the activity and stability of thermolysin.
PubMed:Hydrolysis of wheat gluten by combining peptidases of Flammulina velutipes and electrodialysis.
PubMed:Measurements of substrate oxidation using (13)CO 2-breath testing reveals shifts in fuel mix during starvation.
PubMed:Obesity-related metabolomic analysis of human subjects in black soybean peptide intervention study by ultraperformance liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
PubMed:L-Leucine and L-isoleucine enhance growth of BBN-induced urothelial tumors in the rat bladder by modulating expression of amino acid transporters and tumorigenesis-associated genes.
PubMed:Initial adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to fine polished stainless steel under flow conditions is determined by prior growth conditions.
PubMed:Effects of mutations of thermolysin, as N116 to asp and asp150 to glu, on salt-induced activation and stabilization.
PubMed:A dipeptide and an amino acid present in whey protein hydrolysate increase translocation of GLUT-4 to the plasma membrane in Wistar rats.
PubMed:Authentication of pure L-leucine products manufactured in China by discriminating between plant and animal sources using nitrogen stable isotope technique.
PubMed:Amino acids and peptides activate at least five members of the human bitter taste receptor family.
PubMed:Brainstem nutrient sensing in the nucleus of the solitary tract inhibits feeding.
PubMed:A novel Fe(II)/╬▒-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase from Burkholderia ambifaria has ╬▓-hydroxylating activity of N-succinyl l-leucine.
PubMed:Effects of "Bioactive" amino acids leucine, glutamate, arginine and tryptophan on feed intake and mRNA expression of relative neuropeptides in broiler chicks.
PubMed:Long-term treatment with L-isoleucine or L-leucine in AIN-93G diet has promoting effects on rat bladder carcinogenesis.
PubMed:Production, active staining and gas chromatography assay analysis of recombinant aminopeptidase P from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis DSM 20481.
PubMed:Dietary L-leucine and L-alanine supplementation have similar acute effects in the prevention of high-fat diet-induced obesity.
PubMed:Effect of central and peripheral leucine on energy metabolism in the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).
PubMed:Effects of site-directed mutagenesis of Asn116 in the ╬▓-hairpin of the N-terminal domain of thermolysin on its activity and stability.
PubMed:Structural analysis of a new cytotoxic demethylated analogue of neo-N-methylsansalvamide with a different peptide sequence produced by Fusarium solani isolated from potato.
PubMed:Prey digestion in the midgut of the predatory bug Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).
PubMed:Allocation of endogenous and dietary protein in the reconstitution of the gastrointestinal tract in migratory blackcaps at stopover sites.
PubMed:Intracerebroventricular administration of metformin inhibits ghrelin-induced Hypothalamic AMP-kinase signalling and food intake.
PubMed:Kinetic analysis for the degradation of glycyl-L-leucine and L-leucyl-glycine in subcritical water.
PubMed:Effects of leucine and citrulline versus non-essential amino acids on muscle protein synthesis in fasted rat: a common activation pathway?
PubMed:Growth of Esteya vermicola in media amended with nitrogen sources yields conidia with increased predacity and resistance to environmental stress.
PubMed:Gelatin enhances 2-keto-L-gulonic acid production based on Ketogulonigenium vulgare genome annotation.
PubMed:Olfactory sensitivity to amino acids in the blackspot sea bream (Pagellus bogaraveo): a comparison between olfactory receptor recording techniques in seawater.
PubMed:Prolonged leucine supplementation does not augment muscle mass or affect glycemic control in elderly type 2 diabetic men.
PubMed:Supplementation with a fish oil-enriched, high-protein medical food leads to rapid incorporation of EPA into white blood cells and modulates immune responses within one week in healthy men and women.
PubMed:Technological characterization of lactococci isolated from traditional Chinese fermented milks.
PubMed:Body weight and energy homeostasis was not affected in C57BL/6 mice fed high whey protein or leucine-supplemented low-fat diets.
PubMed:Effects of site-directed mutagenesis of the loop residue of the N-terminal domain Gly117 of thermolysin on its catalytic activity.
PubMed:Extrusion decreases the negative effects of kidney bean on enzyme and transport activities of the rat small intestine.
PubMed:An improved bioprocess for extracellular L-leucine amino peptidase production using Streptomyces gedanensis.
PubMed:Characterization of activity of a potential food-grade leucine aminopeptidase from kiwifruit.
PubMed:Origin and Incidence of 2-Methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, a Compound with a "Fungal" and "Corky" Aroma Found in Cork Stoppers and Oak Chips in Contact with Wines.
PubMed:Gellan gum as an immobilization matrix for the production of cyclosporin A.
PubMed:Supplementing L-leucine to a low-protein diet increases tissue protein synthesis in weanling pigs.
PubMed:Leucine supplementation favors liver protein status but does not reduce body fat in rats during 1 week of food restriction.
PubMed:Dietary l-leucine supplementation of lactating rats results in a tendency to increase lean/fat ratio associated to lower orexigenic neuropeptide expression in hypothalamus.
PubMed:Statistical optimization for improved production of cyclosporin a in solid-state fermentation.
PubMed:Heating improves poor compliance with branched chain amino acid-rich supplementation in patients with liver cirrhosis: A before-after pilot study.
PubMed:The mammalian target of rapamycin as novel central regulator of puberty onset via modulation of hypothalamic Kiss1 system.
PubMed:Kokumi-active glutamyl peptides in cheeses and their biogeneration by Penicillium roquefortii.
PubMed:Protein properties of mackerel viscera extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide.
PubMed:The effects of age on uptake, serum half-life and bioavailability of mouse [D-Leu-4]OB3, a synthetic peptide amide with leptin-like activity, in male C57BL/6J mice.
PubMed:Effects of introducing negative charges into the molecular surface of thermolysin by site-directed mutagenesis on its activity and stability.
PubMed:Anti-peptide antibody production elicited by in vitro immunization of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
PubMed:Inhibitory effect of aroma on the bitterness of branched-chain amino acid solutions.
PubMed:Production of L-leucine aminopeptidase by selected Streptomyces isolates.
PubMed:Metabolic and digestive response to food ingestion in a binge-feeding lizard, the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum).
PubMed:Improving the activity and stability of thermolysin by site-directed mutagenesis.
PubMed:Enantioselective separation of all-E-astaxanthin and its determination in microbial sources.
PubMed:Molecular and sensory characterization of gamma-glutamyl peptides as key contributors to the kokumi taste of edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).
PubMed:Effects of leucine and phenylalanine supplementation during intermittent periods of food restriction and refeeding in adult rats.
PubMed:Effects of site-directed mutagenesis of the surface residues Gln128 and Gln225 of thermolysin on its catalytic activity.
PubMed:Kinetic analysis of the activation-and-inhibition dual effects of cobalt ion on thermolysin activity.
PubMed:Molecular mechanism of the inhibitory effect of cobalt ion on thermolysin activity and the suppressive effect of calcium ion on the cobalt ion-dependent inactivation of thermolysin.
PubMed:Kinetics of plasma apolipoprotein C-III as a determinant of diet-induced changes in plasma triglyceride levels.
PubMed:Suppression of myofibrillar proteolysis in chick skeletal muscles by alpha-ketoisocaproate.
PubMed:Lactoferricin-related peptides with inhibitory effects on ACE-dependent vasoconstriction.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of a halotolerant intracellular protease from Bacillus subtilis strain FP-133.
PubMed:Protease and esterase activity of staphylococci.
PubMed:Effects of leucine supplementation on the body composition and protein status of rats submitted to food restriction.
PubMed:Sequence diversity of the peptaibol antibiotic suzukacillin-A from the mold Trichoderma viride.
PubMed:Effect of individual amino acids and glucose on activation and germination of Rhizopus oligosporus sporangiospores in tempe starter.
PubMed:Characterization of Gly-D-Phe, Gly-L-Leu, and D-Phe as affinity ligands to thermolysin.
PubMed:Extracellular production of recombinant thermolysin expressed in Escherichia coli, and its purification and enzymatic characterization.
PubMed:Asp578 in LEU4p is one of the key residues for leucine feedback inhibition release in sake yeast.
PubMed:Clinical comparison of branched-chain amino acid (l-Leucine, l-Isoleucine, l-Valine) granules and oral nutrition for hepatic insufficiency in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis (LIV-EN study).
PubMed:Lipid-lowering efficacy of 3,4-di(OH)-phenylpropionic L-leucine in high-cholesterol fed rats.
PubMed:Leptin secretion and protein kinase A activity.
PubMed:Direct spectrophotometric measurement of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity for screening bioactive peptides.
PubMed:Atmospheric oxygen and other conditions affecting the production of cereulide by Bacillus cereus in food.
PubMed:Prolonged oral treatment with an essential amino acid L-leucine does not affect female reproductive function and embryo-fetal development in rats.
PubMed:Tissue-specific regulation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1 phosphorylation by alpha-ketoisocaproate.
PubMed:Suppression of the bitterness of enteral nutrients using increased particle sizes of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and various flavours: a taste sensor study.
PubMed:Diversity of L-leucine catabolism in various microorganisms involved in dairy fermentations, and identification of the rate-controlling step in the formation of the potent flavour component 3-methylbutanal.
PubMed:Purification and some properties of cathepsin H from rabbit skeletal muscle.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of aminopeptidase (Jc-peptidase) from Japanese cedar pollen (Cryptomeria japonica).
PubMed:Oral administration of leucine stimulates phosphorylation of 4E-bP1 and S6K 1 in skeletal muscle but not in liver of diabetic rats.
PubMed:Contribution of insulin to the translational control of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle by leucine.
PubMed:Time course of leucine-induced 4E-BP1 and S6K1 phosphorylation in the liver and skeletal muscle of rats.
PubMed:Effects of cobalt-substitution of the active zinc ion in thermolysin on its activity and active-site microenvironment.
PubMed:Whole-body L-leucine oxidation in patients with variant form of maple syrup urine disease.
PubMed:Native and acid-denatured L-lactate dehydrogenase are different in the lysosomal proteinases involving in their overall degradation.
PubMed:Effect of amino acids on the composition and properties of extruded mixtures of wheat flour and glucose.
PubMed:Screen-printed amperometric biosensors for the rapid measurement of L- and D-amino acids.
PubMed:Olfactory discrimination of amino acids in brown bullhead catfish.
PubMed:Growth hormone effects on essential amino acid absorption, muscle amino acid profile, N-retention and nutritional requirements of striped bass hybrids.
PubMed:Reproducibility of the separation of astaxanthin stereoisomers on Pirkle covalent L-leucine and D-phenylglycine columns.
PubMed:The naturally occurring furanones: formation and function from pheromone to food.
PubMed:Digestive responses during food restriction and realimentation in nestling house sparrows (Passer domesticus).
PubMed:Formation of amino acid (L-leucine, L-phenylalanine) derived volatile flavour compounds by Moraxella phenylpyruvica and Staphylococcus xylosus in cured meat model systems.
PubMed:Effects of pH, temperature, and alcohols on the remarkable activation of thermolysin by salts.
PubMed:Visual and chemical release of feeding behavior in adult rainbow trout.
PubMed:Changes in blood-brain barrier nutrient transport in the offspring of iodine-deficient rats and their preventability.
PubMed:Effects of leucine on whole body leucine, valine, and threonine metabolism in humans.
PubMed:Response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to supplements of individual essential amino acids in a semipurified diet, including an estimate of the maintenance requirement for essential amino acids.
PubMed:Rapid liquid chromatographic method to distinguish wild salmon from aquacultured salmon fed synthetic astaxanthin.
PubMed:Is diet shifting facilitated by modulation of intestinal nutrient uptake? Test of an adaptational hypothesis in yellow-rumped warblers.
PubMed:Purification of aminopeptidase from Australian classified barley flour.
PubMed:Production of egg proteins, enriched with L-leucine-13C1, for the study of protein assimilation in humans using the breath test technique.
PubMed:Effect of amino acid residues at the cleavable site of substrates on the remarkable activation of thermolysin by salts.
PubMed:Lipoprotein that selectively inhibits taste nerve responses to bitter substances.
PubMed:Influence of leucine on intestinal baclofen absorption as a model compound of neutral alpha-aminoacids.
PubMed:In vitro adsorption of amino acids onto isolated rat erythrocyte membranes.
PubMed:Enhanced formation of isoamyl alcohol in Zygosaccharomyces rouxii due to elimination of feedback inhibition of alpha-isopropylmalate synthase.
PubMed:Effects of excess dietary leucine and leucine catabolites on growth and immune responses in weanling pigs.
PubMed:The influence of net water absorption on the permeability of antipyrine and levodopa in the human jejunum.
PubMed:[The effect of the isolated or group housing of rat pups weaned at different times from the lactating female on the development of a spectrum of digestive enzymes in the small intestine].
PubMed:Nutritional profile and antimicrobial spectrum of the spice Aframomum danielli K. Schum.
PubMed:Leucine and glucose turnover in chronic alcoholics during early abstinence and after an ethanol load.
PubMed:Requirement of thiol compounds as reducing agents for IL-2-mediated induction of LAK activity and proliferation of human NK cells.
PubMed:On the 13C CP/MAS spectra of leucine.
PubMed:Isoleucine requirements of the chicken: the effect of excess leucine and valine on the response to isoleucine.
PubMed:Influence of subchronic exposure to low dietary deoxynivalenol, a trichothecene mycotoxin, on intestinal absorption of nutrients in mice.
PubMed:Measurement of very low density and low density lipoprotein apolipoprotein (Apo) B-100 and high density lipoprotein Apo A-I production in human subjects using deuterated leucine. Effect of fasting and feeding.
PubMed:Effects of valine on 15N incorporation into serum and tissue protein and non-protein fractions following 15N-L-leucine administration to normal and liver-injured rats.
PubMed:Insulin secretion in the isolated islets of single-, regular-fasted and fed rats.
PubMed:[Effect on uptake of D-glucose, L-leucine and L-leucylglycine into intestinal brush border membrane vesicles isolated from rats fed either oligopeptide or amino acid elemental diet].
PubMed:[Effect of feeding a small-peptide elemental diet on amino acid absorption and its mechanism--study by measuring the transmural potential difference in guinea-pig small intestine].
PubMed:L-leucine and its analogue: specific inhibitors for S-benzyl-L-cysteine-p-nitroanilide-hydrolyzing enzyme in Escherichia coli B.
PubMed:Comparative effects of individual amino acid excesses when added to a corn-soybean meal diet: effects on growth and dietary choice in the chick.
PubMed:Amino acid excesses for young pigs: effects of excess methionine, tryptophan, threonine or leucine.
PubMed:Effect of L-leucine on oral melphalan kinetics in patients.
PubMed:Behavioral study of chemoreception in the sea star Marthasterias glacialis: structure-activity relationships of lactic acid, amino acids, and acetylcholine.
PubMed:Amino acid and dipeptide absorption in rats fed chemically defined diets of differing fiber composition.
PubMed:[Absorption of 14C-leucine and 15N-leucine in rats after feeding a fish meal diet in comparison with a gelatin diet].
PubMed:The control of food mobilization in seeds of Cucumis sativus L. : III. The control of protein degradation.
PubMed:Production of oxytetracycline by Streptomyces rimosus 12,907 as an animal feed supplement.
PubMed:Peptidase activity in Tetrahymena.
PubMed:Hyperphagia following intraventricular p-chlorophenylalanine-, leucine- or tryptophan-methyl esters: lack of correlation with whole brain serotonin levels.
PubMed:The effect of a high level of dietary leucine on the niacin status of chicks and rats.
PubMed:The branched-chain amino acid antagonism in chicks.
PubMed:Chemosensory tracking of scent trails by the planktonic shrimp Acetes sibogae australis.
PubMed:[Resorption and incorporation of radioactive-labeled amino acids during the administration of various protein carriers in rats. 2. Uptake of radioactivity by tissues of the gastrointestinal tract after intragastric administration of 14C-L-U-leucine and 3H-glycine].
PubMed:Effects of mercury on spermatogenesis studied by velocity sedimentation cell separation and serial mating.
PubMed:The effect of pregnancy and lactation on food intake, gastrointestinal anatomy and the absorptive capacity of the small intestine in the albino rat.
 
Notes:
an essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation. Flavouring ingredient; dietary supplement, nutrient
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