EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

fumaric acid
trans-1,2-ethylenedicarboxylic acid

Supplier Sponsors

Name:(2E)-but-2-enedioic acid
CAS Number: 110-17-8Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:203-743-0
FDA UNII:88XHZ13131
Beilstein Number:0605763
MDL:MFCD00002700
CoE Number:25
XlogP3:-0.30 (est)
Molecular Weight:116.07268000
Formula:C4 H4 O4
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
EFSA/JECFA Comments:
GrADI not specified (JECFA, 1990a).
Category:special dietary and nutritional additives
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
EU SANCO Fumaric acid View-review
JECFA Food Flavoring:618 fumaric acid
JECFA Food Additive: Fumaric Acid
GSFA Codex: Fumaric acid (297)
FLAVIS Number:08.025 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:08.025 fumaric acid
DG SANTE Food Additives:fumaric acid
DG SANTE Food Contact Materials:fumaric acid
FEMA Number:2488 fumaric acid
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm: FUMARIC ACID
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 150 -- FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products
Sec. 150.141 Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.


FDA PART 150 -- FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products
Sec. 150.161 Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.


FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart D--Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives
Sec. 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.


FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart I--Multipurpose Additives
Sec. 172.808 Copolymer condensates of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide.


FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart I--Multipurpose Additives
Sec. 172.810 Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate.


FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart I--Multipurpose Additives
Sec. 172.822 Sodium lauryl sulfate.


FDA PART 175 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS
Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Adhesives
Sec. 175.105 Adhesives.


FDA PART 175 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS
Subpart C--Substances for Use as Components of Coatings
Sec. 175.300 Resinous and polymeric coatings.


FDA PART 175 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS
Subpart C--Substances for Use as Components of Coatings
Sec. 175.320 Resinous and polymeric coatings for polyolefin films.


FDA PART 176 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS
Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard
Sec. 176.170 Components of paper and paperboard in contact with aqueous and fatty foods.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart B--Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact
Sec. 177.1200 Cellophane.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart C--Substances for Use Only as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use
Sec. 177.2420 Polyester resins, cross-linked.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white colorless crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 99.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Melting Point: 298.00 to 300.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 156.00 °C. @ 1.70 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.000005 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point:> 230.00 °F. TCC ( > 110.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 0.460
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 oils, slightly
 water, 1.042e+005 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 water, 7000 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Strength:none
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. odorless
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: buffering agents
 
Suppliers:
A.M.G.L.T.
Fumaric Acid
Aceto
Fumaric Acid
Advanced Biotech
FUMARIC ACID NATURAL
Allan Chemical
Fumaric Acid
American International Chemical, LLC.
FUMARIC ACID NF FCC GRANULAR FF
Anhui Haibei
Fumaric Acid
Apiscent Labs
T-2-BUTENDIOIC ACID
Bartek Ingredients
FUMARIC ACID
Flavor: characteristic
Fumaric acid is an organic acid widely found in nature. In humans and other mammals, Fumaric acid is a key intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle for organic acid biosynthesis (the KREBS cycle). Fumaric acid is also an essential ingredient in plant life.
BBFY Industrial
Fumaric Acid
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Fumaric Acid > 95%
Coompo
For experimental / research use only.
Fumaric Acid from Plants ≥96%
Covalent Chemical
Fumaric Acid HWS/CWS
ECSA Chemicals
Fumaric Acid
Company Profile
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
Fumaric Acid
Foodchem International
Fumaric Acid
Graham Chemical
Fumaric Acid
Kraft Chemical
Fumaric Acid
Penta International
FUMARIC ACID FCC, Kosher
Penta International
FUMARIC ACID NF GRADE
Prinova
Fumaric Acid
Qingdao Dacon Trading
Fumaric Acid
Rainbow Chemical
Fumaric acid food grade 99.50∼100.50 (dry basis)
Reincke & Fichtner
Fumaric Acid
Sigma-Aldrich
Fumaric acid, ≥99%, FCC, FG
Certified Food Grade Products
Silver Fern Chemical
Fumaric Acid
Odor: characteristic
Use: Fumaric Acid has many uses that include resins, coatings, oils, foods and beverages, inks, and pharmaceuticals.
SysKem Chemie
Fumaric Acid
Tate & Lyle
Fumaric Acid
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Fumaric Acid >99.0%(GC)(T)
Zhong Ya Chemical
Fumaric Acid
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 36 - Irritating to eyes.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 25 - Avoid contact with eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 39 - Wear eye/face protection.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 [sex: F] 9300 mg/kg
(Vernot et al., 1977)

oral-rat LD50 [sex: M] 10700 mg/kg
(Vernot et al., 1977)

oral-rabbit LDLo 5000 mg/kg
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Vol. 15, Pg. 628, 1923.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 100 mg/kg
National Technical Information Service. Vol. AD277-689

oral-rabbit LDLo 5000 mg/kg
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Vol. 15, Pg. 628, 1923.

oral-rat LD50 9300 mg/kg
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 42, Pg. 417, 1977.

intraperitoneal-rat LDLo 587 mg/kg
LIVER: OTHER CHANGES GASTROINTESTINAL: OTHER CHANGES BLOOD: HEMORRHAGE
Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Scientific Edition. Vol. 35, Pg. 298, 1946.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: special dietary and nutritional additives
Recommendation for fumaric acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 780.00 (μg/capita/day)
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -1300.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -50.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: -3600.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: --
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC) on a request from the Commission related to - Flavouring Group Evaluation 10: Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 1 (FGE10 Rev1)[1] - Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 64 (FGE.64): Consideration of aliphatic acyclic diols, triols, and related substances evaluated by JECFA (57th meeting) structurally related to aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.10Rev1 (EFSA, 2008ab)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Report of EFSA on the risk assessment of salts of authorised acids, phenols or alcohols for use in food contact materials [1]
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 92 (FGE.92): Consideration of aliphatic acyclic diols, triols, and related substances evaluated by JECFA (68th meeting) structurally related to aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones evaluated by EFSA in FGE.10Rev1 (2009)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 2 (FGE.10Rev2): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of fumaric acid as a feed additive for all animal species
View page or View pdf

Review of substances/agents that have direct beneficial effect on the environment: mode of action and assessment of efficacy
View page or View pdf

Safety and efficacy of AviMatrix« (benzoic acid, calcium formate and fumaric acid) for chickens for fattening, chickens reared for laying, minor avian species for fattening and minor avian species reared to point of lay
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Daily Med:search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards:search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):110-17-8
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :723
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
(2E)-but-2-enedioic acid
Chemidplus:0000110178
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS:110-17-8
 
References:
 (2E)-but-2-enedioic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:110-17-8
Pubchem (cid):723
Pubchem (sid):134974177
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
Metabolomics Database:Search
UM BBD:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00122
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00134
FooDB:FDB003291
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB00101
Export Tariff Code:2917.19.1700
Haz-Map:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
FAO:FUMARIC ACID
FAO:Fumaric acid
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
 
Potential Uses:
 buffering agents
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 apple plant
Search Trop Picture
 bean fava bean
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 bean fava bean root
Search Trop Picture
 broadbean root
Search Trop Picture
 broccoli asparagus broccoli plant
Search Trop Picture
 brussel sprout leaf
Search Trop Picture
 cabbage leaf
Search Trop Picture
 carrot root
Search Trop Picture
 celery root
Search Trop Picture
 cherry sour cherry fruit
Search Trop Picture
 chickpea
Search Trop Picture
 chive leaf
Search Trop Picture
 fennel seed
Search Trop Picture
 fig fruit
Search Trop Picture
 fig fruit juice
Search Trop Picture
 fish
Search PMC Picture
 fumaria officinalis
Search Trop Picture
 grape leaf
Search Trop Picture
 kohlrabi stem
Search Trop Picture
 onion bulb
Search Trop Picture
 papaya fruit
Search Trop Picture
 parsley root
Search Trop Picture
 pea
Search Trop Picture
 pomegranate fruit
Search Trop Picture
 potato tuber
Search Trop Picture
 rhubarb plant
Search Trop Picture
 sage plant
Search Trop Picture
 soybean seed
Search Trop Picture
 star fruit fruit
Search Trop Picture
 sunflower leaf
Search Trop Picture
 tomato fruit
Search Trop Picture
 
Synonyms:
 boletic acid
(2E)-but-2-enedioic acid
(E)-but-2-enedioic acid
trans-but-2-enedioic acid
(E)-butene dioic acid
(2E)-2-butenedioic acid
(E)-butenedioic acid
(E)-2-butenedioic acid
trans-2-butenedioic acid
2-butenedioic acid (2E)-
2-butenedioic acid, (2E)-
 butenedioic acid, (E)-
2-butenedioic acid, (E)-
trans-1,2-ethenedicarboxylic acid
1,2-ethenedicarboxylic acid, trans-
(E)-1,2-ethylene dicarboxylic acid
alpha,beta-ethylene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid
(E)-1,2-ethylenedicarboxylic acid
trans-1,2-ethylenedicarboxylic acid
 fumaric acid FCC
 fumaric acid FCC powder cold water soluble CWS 31502
 fumaric acid natural
 fumaric acid NF FCC granular FF
 fumaricacid
 fumarsaeure
 lichenic acid
allomaleic acid
allo-maleic acid
allo-malenic acid
(E)-tumaric acid
 

Articles:

PubMed:Fumaric Acid Production by Torulopsis glabrata: Engineering the Urea Cycle and the Purine Nucleotide Cycle.
PubMed:Design of oral agents for the management of multiple sclerosis: benefit and risk assessment for dimethyl fumarate.
PubMed:Microbial biosynthesis and secretion of l-malic acid and its applications.
PubMed:Efficient transformation of Rhizopus delemar by electroporation of germinated spores.
PubMed:Process characterization and influence of alternative carbon sources and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio on organic acid production by Aspergillus oryzae DSM1863.
PubMed:Pathophysiological processes in multiple sclerosis: focus on nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 and emerging pathways.
PubMed:Characteristics of organic acids in the fruit of different pumpkin species.
PubMed:Metabolic differentiation of diamondback moth ( Plutella xylostella (L.)) resistance in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata).
PubMed:Non-volatile taste components of several cultivated mushrooms.
PubMed:Fumaric acid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by simultaneous use of oxidative and reductive routes.
PubMed:Stability of monacolin K and citrinin and biochemical characterization of red-koji vinegar during fermentation.
PubMed:Fumaric acid attenuates the eotaxin-1 expression in TNF-╬▒-stimulated fibroblasts by suppressing p38 MAPK-dependent NF-╬║B signaling.
PubMed:Biosurfactants of Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV đÉĐü-5017: synthesis intensification and practical application.
PubMed:Development of an effective treatment for A 5-log reduction of Escherichia coli in refrigerated pickle products.
PubMed:Fumaric acid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by in silico aided metabolic engineering.
PubMed:Peach fruit: metabolic comparative analysis of two varieties with different resistances to insect attacks by NMR spectroscopy.
PubMed:Phytochemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some medicinal plants.
PubMed:Key technologies for the industrial production of fumaric acid by fermentation.
PubMed:Composition of sugars, organic acids, and total phenolics in 25 wild or cultivated berry species.
PubMed:Metabolic engineering of Rhizopus oryzae: effects of overexpressing pyc and pepc genes on fumaric acid biosynthesis from glucose.
PubMed:Phenolic compounds analysis of root, stalk, and leaves of nettle.
PubMed:Field enhancement sample stacking for analysis of organic acids in traditional Chinese medicine by capillary electrophoresis.
PubMed:Reconstruction of cytosolic fumaric acid biosynthetic pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Optimization of fumaric acid production by Rhizopus delemar based on the morphology formation.
PubMed:Preservation of acidified cucumbers with a combination of fumaric acid and cinnamaldehyde that target lactic acid bacteria and yeasts.
PubMed:Antimicrobial effects of weak acids on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 under anaerobic conditions.
PubMed:Identification and characterization of two new derivatives of chlorogenic acids in Arnica (Arnica montana L.) flowers by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Preservation of acidified cucumbers with a natural preservative combination of fumaric acid and allyl isothiocyanate that target lactic acid bacteria and yeasts.
PubMed:Michael acceptor based antiplasmodial and antitrypanosomal cysteine protease inhibitors with unusual amino acids.
PubMed:Psoriasis (chronic plaque).
PubMed:Exploring abiotic stress on asynchronous protein metabolism in single kernels of wheat studied by NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics.
PubMed:Comparative characterization of L-lactic acid-producing thermotolerant Rhizopus fungi.
PubMed:Relatedness of medically important strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as revealed by phylogenetics and metabolomics.
PubMed:Comparison of the skin sensitizing potential of unsaturated compounds as assessed by the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT).
PubMed:Co-production of fumaric acid and chitin from a nitrogen-rich lignocellulosic material - dairy manure - using a pelletized filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae ATCC 20344.
PubMed:Fumaric and sorbic acid as additives in broiler feed.
PubMed:A convenient route to the synthesis of isotopomeric dihydro-2(3H)furanones.
PubMed:[Simultaneous determination of twenty-one organic acids in food by ion chromatography with eluent autogeneration].
PubMed:L-(-)-malic acid production by Saccharomyces spp. during the alcoholic fermentation of wine (1).
PubMed:Metabolomic discrimination of different grades of pine-mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) using 1H NMR spectrometry and multivariate data analysis.
PubMed:Methane emissions from beef cattle: effects of fumaric acid, essential oil, and canola oil.
PubMed:Efficiency of sodium hypochlorite, fumaric acid, and mild heat in killing native microflora and Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium DT104, and Staphylococcus aureus attached to fresh-cut lettuce.
PubMed:Succinate-based preparation alleviates manifestations of the climacteric syndrome in women.
PubMed:Propionate precursors and other metabolic intermediates as possible alternative electron acceptors to methanogenesis in ruminal fermentation in vitro.
PubMed:Methane emissions from beef cattle: Effects of monensin, sunflower oil, enzymes, yeast, and fumaric acid.
PubMed:Pharmacokinetics of oral fumarates in healthy subjects.
PubMed:Fumaric acid in apple juice: a potential indicator of microbial spoilage of apples used as raw material.
PubMed:A sphingolipid and tyrosinase inhibitors from the fruiting body of Phellinus linteus.
PubMed:Organic acids influence iron uptake in the human epithelial cell line Caco-2.
PubMed:Study of the organic acids composition of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit and jam.
PubMed:Addition of fumaric acid and sodium benzoate as an alternative method to achieve a 5-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in apple cider.
PubMed:Effect of activated charcoal on patulin, fumaric acid and some other properties of apple juice.
PubMed:Antibacterial activity in extracts of Camellia japonica L. petals and its application to a model food system.
PubMed:Methods for determination of milt protein and epsilon-polylysine in food additive preparations and processed foods by capillary zone electrophoresis.
PubMed:[Effects of chemical agents on the prevention of fungal contamination during household wheat storage in Cixian county].
PubMed:Determination of fumaric acid in apple juice by on-line coupled capillary isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis with UV detection.
PubMed:Production of multifunctional organic acids from renewable resources.
PubMed:Estimation of the distribution of the maximum theoretical intake for ten additives in France.
PubMed:Simultaneous quantification of released succinic acid and a weakly basic drug compound in dissolution media.
PubMed:Use of ion chromatography for monitoring microbial spoilage in the fruit juice industry.
PubMed:Fumaric acid, anti-thrombin substance from Rhizopus javanicus.
PubMed:Retention and utilization of amino acids in piglets fed ad libitum or restrictively diets supplemented with organic acids.
PubMed:Fumaric acid overproduction in yeast mutants deficient in fumarase.
PubMed:Induction of glutathione transferases and NAD(P)H:quinone reductase by fumaric acid derivatives in rodent cells and tissues.
PubMed:Evaluation of Malolactic Bacteria Isolated from Oregon Wines.
PubMed:Simultaneous gas chromatographic determination of carboxylic acids in soft drinks and jams.
PubMed:Fumaric acid: a new feed additive for pigs.
PubMed:Response of starter pigs to supplementation of corn-soybean meal diets with organic acids.
PubMed:Feed additive studies with newly weaned pigs: efficacy of supplemental copper, antibiotics and organic acids.
PubMed:Immobilization of fumarase by entrapment of rat liver mitochondria in polyacrylamide gel using gamma rays.
PubMed:[Mineral and trace element content of rats with dietary fumaric acid supplement].
PubMed:Deamination of glumatic and aspartic acids by Geotrichum candidum.
 
Notes:
see also record for ferrous fumarate. Prod. industrially by fermentation of Rhizopus nigricans, or manuf. by catalytic or thermal isomerisation of maleic anhydride or maleic acid. Used as an antioxidant, acidulant, leavening agent and flavouring agent in foods. Present in raw lean fish. Dietary supplement. Used in powdered products since fumaric acid is less hygroscopic than other acids A precursor to L-malate in the Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is formed by the oxidation of succinate by succinate dehydrogenase. (wikipedia)
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