EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

butyl paraben
butyl p-hydroxybenzoate

Supplier Sponsors

Name:butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate
CAS Number: 94-26-8Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other(deleted CASRN):8068-49-3
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:202-318-7
Nikkaji Web:J2.842H
Beilstein Number:1103741
CoE Number:525
XlogP3:3.60 (est)
Molecular Weight:194.23018000
Formula:C11 H14 O3
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:antioxidants and preservatives for fragrance and flavor
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:870 butyl p-hydroxybenzoate
FEMA Number:2203 butyl p-hydroxybenzoate
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Regulation:
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.515 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 99.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 68.50 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 156.00 to 157.00 °C. @ 3.50 mm Hg
Acid Value: 1.00 max. KOH/g
Vapor Pressure:0.000180 mmHg @ 25.00 °C.
Flash Point: 264.00 °F. TCC ( 128.89 °C. )
logP (o/w): 3.570
Shelf Life: 24.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage:store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 water, 207 mg/L @ 20 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Strength:low
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. very faint phenolic
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: fragrance
Butyl Paraben
Odor: characteristic
Use: Antimicrobial Preservative Used in Cosmetics and Personal Care.
Alfa Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Butyl 4-Hydroxybenzoate 98%
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Butyl Paraben >98%
ECSA Chemicals
Foodchem International
Butyl Paraben
CoSept(tm) B
Odor: characteristic
Use: More than the other parabens, CoSept B provides strong antimicrobial action against fungi and yeast. It is used as a co-preservative with other CoSepts in order to increase the spectrum of activity. CoSept B is the least water-soluble of the parabens with global approval as cosmetic biocides. Like the other parabens, it is only effective at acidic pH. Usage levels range from 0.001 to 0.2%.
Indis NV
For experimental / research use only.
Butyl Paraben
Kingyoung Bio Technical
Kraft Chemical
Butyl Paraben
Nanjing Jiancheng Chemical
Butyl Paraben
Odor: characteristic
Use: Butyl paraben is mainly used as antiseptics in cosmetics, food and medicine. It is also can be used as feed preservatives and intermediates of organic synthesis.
Penta International
Penta International
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Butyl Paraben
Butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, ≥99%
Certified Food Grade Products
Sigma-Aldrich: Aldrich
For experimental / research use only.
Butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate ≥99.0% (GC)
Sinofi Food Ingredients
Odor: characteristic
Use: Preservative, Cosmetics, Feed, Pharmaceutical, Soft Drink, Alcohol Beverage, Beverage Powder, Fruit Juice, Puddings, Sauces, Baking Food, Sauage, Flavoring Agent.
For experimental / research use only.
Butyl 4-Hydroxybenzoate >99.0%(GC)(T)
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
None - None found.
S 22 - Do not breath dust.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-mouse LD50 13200 mg/kg
(Sado, 1973)

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 230 mg/kg
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists. Vol. 28, Pg. 357, 1977.

oral-mouse LD50 > 5000 mg/kg
(Sokol, 1952)

oral-mouse LD50 13200 mg/kg
Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene. Vol. 28, Pg. 463, 1973.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
antioxidants and preservatives for fragrance and flavor
Recommendation for butyl paraben usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): ND (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 0.03 (μg/capita/day)
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -10.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -1000.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: --
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(EFSA):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) on a request from the Commission related to Flavouring Group Evaluation 20 (FGE.20): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters from chemical group 23
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 52 (FGE.52): Consideration of hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives evaluated by JECFA (57th meeting) structurally related to benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.20 (2005) (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000) - Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 54 (FGE.54)[1] - Consideration of benzyl derivatives evaluated by JECFA (57th meeting) structurally related to benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids and related esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.20 (2005) - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 1 (FGE.20Rev1): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids and related esters from chemical group 23
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 54, Revision 1 (FGE.54Rev1): Consideration of benzyl derivatives evaluated by JECFA (57th meeting) structurally related to benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids and related esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.20Rev1 (2009)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 2 (FGE.20Rev2): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters from chemical groups 23 and 30
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 3(FGE.20Rev3): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters from chemical groups 23 and 30
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):94-26-8
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :7184
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:2
butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS:DH1980000 for cas# 94-26-8
 butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:94-26-8
Pubchem (cid):7184
Pubchem (sid):134971125
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
KEGG (GenomeNet):D01420
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB32575
Export Tariff Code:2918.29.7500
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
•calcium and magnesium salts are available •trade names: butoben, butyl butex, butyl chemosept, butyl parasept, butyl tegosept, nipabutyl, preserval b, solbrol b, spf, tegosept b, and tegosept butyl
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 not found in nature
 benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-, butyl ester
 benzoic acid, p-hydroxy-, butyl ester
4-(butoxycarbonyl) phenol
 butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate
N-butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate
 butyl butex
 butyl chemosept
 butyl p-hydroxybenzoate
N-butyl p-hydroxybenzoate
 butyl par asept
 butyl para-hydroxybenzoate
N-butyl parahydroxybenzoate
 butyl parasept
 butyl tegosept
 butyl-p-hydroxybenzoate NF
4-hydroxybenzoic acid butyl ester
p-hydroxybenzoic acid butyl ester
para-hydroxybenzoic acid butyl ester
4-hydroxybenzoic acid N-butyl ester
p-hydroxybenzoic acid N-butyl ester
4-hydroxybenzoic acid, butyl ester
p-hydroxybenzoic acid, butyl ester
p-hydroxybenzoic butyl ester
 mekkings B
 preserval B
 solbrol B
 tegosept B


PubMed:Ethylparaben affects lifespan, fecundity, and the expression levels of ERR, EcR and YPR in Drosophila melanogaster.
PubMed:Exposure determinants of phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A and triclosan in Swedish mothers and their children.
PubMed:A multiresidue method for the determination of selected endocrine disrupting chemicals in human breast milk based on a simple extraction procedure.
PubMed:Actions of methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben on estrogen receptor-α and -β and the progesterone receptor in MCF-7 cancer cells and non-cancerous MCF-10A cells.
PubMed:A multiclass method for the analysis of endocrine disrupting chemicals in human urine samples. Sample treatment by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.
PubMed:Removal of emerging pollutants by Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation.
PubMed:Photosonochemical degradation of butyl-paraben: optimization, toxicity and kinetic studies.
PubMed:Toxicogenomics in the 3T3-L1 cell line, a new approach for screening of obesogenic compounds.
PubMed:Transplacental passage of antimicrobial paraben preservatives.
PubMed:Analysis of parabens in dentifrices and the oral cavity.
PubMed:UHPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of bisphenol A and its chlorinated derivatives, bisphenol S, parabens, and benzophenones in human urine samples.
PubMed:Occurrence of acidic pharmaceuticals and personal care products in Turia River Basin: from waste to drinking water.
PubMed:Predictors and variability of repeat measurements of urinary phenols and parabens in a cohort of shanghai women and men.
PubMed:Exposure to parabens at the concentration of maximal proliferative response increases migratory and invasive activity of human breast cancer cells in vitro.
PubMed:Effects of n-butylparaben on steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis through changed E₂ levels in male rat offspring.
PubMed:A proposed study on the transplacental transport of parabens in the human placental perfusion model.
PubMed:Differential effect of methyl-, butyl- and propylparaben and 17β-estradiol on selected cell cycle and apoptosis gene and protein expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-10A non-malignant cells.
PubMed:Disruption of Sertoli cell vimentin filaments in prepubertal rats: an acute effect of butylparaben in vivo and in vitro.
PubMed:Development of a selective and sensitive voltammetric sensor for propylparaben based on a nanosized molecularly imprinted polymer-carbon paste electrode.
PubMed:Structure-activity relationship of a series of 17 parabens and related compounds for histamine release in rat peritoneal mast cells and skin allergic reaction in guinea pigs.
PubMed:Transesterification of a series of 12 parabens by liver and small-intestinal microsomes of rats and humans.
PubMed:Determination of Parabens in Beverage Samples by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Based on Solidification of Floating Organic Droplet.
PubMed:Photodegradation of parabens by Fe(III)-citrate complexes at circumneutral pH: matrix effect and reaction mechanism.
PubMed:Widespread occurrence of bisphenol A diglycidyl ethers, p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens), benzophenone type-UV filters, triclosan, and triclocarban in human urine from Athens, Greece.
PubMed:Single administration of butylparaben induces spermatogenic cell apoptosis in prepubertal rats.
PubMed:Personal care product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic.
PubMed:Ruthenium nanoparticles supported on CeO2 for catalytic permanganate oxidation of butylparaben.
PubMed:Combined prenatal and postnatal butyl paraben exposure produces autism-like symptoms in offspring: comparison with valproic acid autistic model.
PubMed:Ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica material as sorbent for solid-phase extraction of acidic and basic compounds.
PubMed:Urinary paraben concentrations and ovarian aging among women from a fertility center.
PubMed:Dermal absorption and hydrolysis of methylparaben in different vehicles through intact and damaged skin: using a pig-ear model in vitro.
PubMed:A new treatment by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of parabens in human serum samples.
PubMed:Aggregate exposure approaches for parabens in personal care products: a case assessment for children between 0 and 3 years old.
PubMed:Simultaneous derivatisation and preconcentration of parabens in food and other matrices by isobutyl chloroformate and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatographic analysis.
PubMed:Effects of single and repeated in vitro exposure of three forms of parabens, methyl-, butyl- and propylparabens on the proliferation and estradiol secretion in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells.
PubMed:Comparative study of the hydrolytic metabolism of methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, heptyl- and dodecylparaben by microsomes of various rat and human tissues.
PubMed:Urinary paraben concentrations among pregnant women and their matching newborn infants of Korea, and the association with oxidative stress biomarkers.
PubMed:Circulating serum xenoestrogens and mammographic breast density.
PubMed:Photo-degradation of butyl parahydroxybenzoate by using TiO2-supported catalyst.
PubMed:Solid lipid nanoparticles as effective reservoir systems for long-term preservation of multidose formulations.
PubMed:Comparative study on transcriptional activity of 17 parabens mediated by estrogen receptor α and β and androgen receptor.
PubMed:Urinary excretion of phthalate metabolites, phenols and parabens in rural and urban Danish mother-child pairs.
PubMed:Effects of triclocarban on the transcription of estrogen, androgen and aryl hydrocarbon receptor responsive genes in human breast cancer cells.
PubMed:A study of parabens and bisphenol A in surface water and fish brain tissue from the Greater Pittsburgh Area.
PubMed:Distribution, variability, and predictors of urinary concentrations of phenols and parabens among pregnant women in Puerto Rico.
PubMed:Analysis of preservatives with different polarities in beverage samples by dual-phase dual stir bar sorptive extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Determination of seven preservatives in cosmetic products by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.
PubMed:Characterization of endocrine disruptors from a complex matrix using estrogen receptor affinity columns and high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Solubilization of parabens in aqueous Pluronic solutions: investigating the micellar growth and interaction as a function of paraben composition.
PubMed:[Determination of sixteen food additives in beverage by capillary zone electrophoresis].
PubMed:Here today, here tomorrow? Urinary concentrations of parabens over time.
PubMed:Dynamic evaluation of polypropylene capillary-channeled fibers as a stationary phase in high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Protection against butyl p-hydroxybenzoic acid induced oxidative stress by Ocimum sanctum extract in mice liver.
PubMed:Determination of biocides in different environmental matrices by use of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Ovariectomized mouse uterotrophic assay of 36 chemicals.
PubMed:Cosmetics as a potential source of environmental contamination in the UK.
PubMed:Effects of parabens on adipocyte differentiation.
PubMed:p-Hydroxybenzoate esters metabolism in MCF7 breast cancer cells.
PubMed:Metabolism and disposition of [14C]n-butyl-p-hydroxybenzoate in male and female Harlan Sprague Dawley rats following oral administration and dermal application.
PubMed:Protective role of metabolism by intestinal microflora in butyl paraben-induced toxicity in HepG2 cell cultures.
PubMed:Parabens inhibit the early phase of folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis in the ovaries of neonatal rats.
PubMed:Parabens enable suspension growth of MCF-10A immortalized, non-transformed human breast epithelial cells.
PubMed:Predictors and variability of urinary paraben concentrations in men and women, including before and during pregnancy.
PubMed:Large volume sample stacking with EOF and sweeping in CE for determination of common preservatives in cosmetic products by chemometric experimental design.
PubMed:Differential effects of environmental chemicals and food contaminants on adipogenesis, biomarker release and PPARγ activation.
PubMed:Effects of parabens on apoptosis induced by serum-free medium.
PubMed:Systemic exposure to parabens: pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, excretion balance and plasma metabolites of [14C]-methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben in rats after oral, topical or subcutaneous administration.
PubMed:Measurement of paraben concentrations in human breast tissue at serial locations across the breast from axilla to sternum.
PubMed:Dissociation constants of parabens and limiting conductances of their ions in water.
PubMed:[Preparation of water in oil type cream with high content of water containing Kochia scoparia fruit and Cnidium monnieri fruit].
PubMed:Butyl p-hydroxybenzoic acid induces oxidative stress in mice liver--an in vivo study.
PubMed:Evaluation of the occurrence and biodegradation of parabens and halogenated by-products in wastewater by accurate-mass liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS).
PubMed:Aquatic toxicity and ecological risk assessment of seven parabens: Individual and additive approach.
PubMed:Synergistic effects of parabens on the induction of calbindin-D(9k) gene expression act via a progesterone receptor-mediated pathway in GH3 cells.
PubMed:Analysis of multi-class preservatives in leave-on and rinse-off cosmetics by matrix solid-phase dispersion.
PubMed:Estrogenic Activity of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Parabens Based on the Stably Transfected Human Estrogen Receptor-α Transcriptional Activation Assay (OECD TG 455).
PubMed:High performance liquid chromatography column packings with deliberately broadened particle size distribution: relation between column performance and packing structure.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of nine UV filters and four preservatives in suncare products by high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Determination of parabens and endocrine-disrupting alkylphenols in soil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following matrix solid-phase dispersion or in-column microwave-assisted extraction: a comparative study.
PubMed:Fast and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography analysis of cosmetic creams for hydroquinone, phenol and six preservatives.
PubMed:Butyl paraben-induced changes in DNA methylation in rat epididymal spermatozoa.
PubMed:Stir bar sorptive extraction of parabens, triclosan and methyl triclosan from soil, sediment and sludge with in situ derivatization and determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Development and validation of a single RP-HPLC assay method for analysis of bulk raw material batches of four parabens that are widely used as preservatives in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products.
PubMed:Relationship between lipophilicity and absorption from the liver surface of paraben derivatives and antipyrine in rats.
PubMed:A new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of parabens in human placental tissue samples.
PubMed:An examination of the thermodynamics of fusion, vaporization, and sublimation of several parabens by correlation gas chromatography.
PubMed:The influence of crystallization inhibition of HPMC and HPMCAS on model substance dissolution and release in swellable matrix tablets.
PubMed:Fully automated determination of parabens, triclosan and methyl triclosan in wastewater by microextraction by packed sorbents and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:The consequence of the chemical composition of HPMC in matrix tablets on the release behaviour of model drug substances having different solubility.
PubMed:GC-MS determination of parabens, triclosan and methyl triclosan in water by in situ derivatisation and stir-bar sorptive extraction.
PubMed:Metabolism of parabens (4-hydroxybenzoic acid esters) by hepatic esterases and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in man.
PubMed:Urinary concentrations of parabens and serum hormone levels, semen quality parameters, and sperm DNA damage.
PubMed:Ozonation of parabens in aqueous solution: kinetics and mechanism of degradation.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of electroactive and non-electroactive food preservatives by novel capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection.
PubMed:Regulation of the 5-HT3A receptor-mediated current by alkyl 4-hydroxybenzoates isolated from the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera.
PubMed:Synthetic approaches to parabens molecularly imprinted polymers and their applications to the solid-phase extraction of river water samples.
PubMed:Simultaneous quantitation of parabens, triclosan, and methyl triclosan in indoor house dust using solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:A new in vitro screening bioassay for the ecotoxicological evaluation of the estrogenic responses of environmental chemicals using roach (Rutilus rutilus) liver explant culture.
PubMed:LC-determination of five paraben preservatives in saliva and toothpaste samples using UV detection and a short monolithic column.
PubMed:In-sample acetylation-non-porous membrane-assisted liquid-liquid extraction for the determination of parabens and triclosan in water samples.
PubMed:In vitro study of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) endocrine disruptor screening and testing methods- establishment of a recombinant rat androgen receptor (rrAR) binding assay.
PubMed:[Determination of six p-hydroxybenzoates in fruits and jams using solid-phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography].
PubMed:Potential estrogenic effect(s) of parabens at the prepubertal stage of a postnatal female rat model.
PubMed:Mixture effects of endocrine disrupting compounds in vitro.
PubMed:Assessment of a robust model protocol with accelerated throughput for a human recombinant full length estrogen receptor-alpha binding assay: protocol optimization and intralaboratory assay performance as initial steps towards validation.
PubMed:Urinary concentrations of four parabens in the U.S. population: NHANES 2005-2006.
PubMed:Determination of parabens in cosmetic products using multi-walled carbon nanotubes as solid phase extraction sorbent and corona-charged aerosol detection system.
PubMed:Short-term dynamic culture of rat testicular fragments as a model to assess effects on steroidogenesis--potential use and limitations.
PubMed:[Scale-up of conical column with 10 degree opening angle as preparative liquid chromatographic column].
PubMed:Simultaneous monitoring of drug and solvent diffusion across a model membrane using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.
PubMed:An evaluation of estrogenic activity of parabens using uterine calbindin-d9k gene in an immature rat model.
PubMed:Determination of ibudilast in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography for pharmacokinetic study.
PubMed:Analysis of parabens in cosmetics by low pressure liquid chromatography with monolithic column and chemiluminescent detection.
PubMed:Relating solubility data of parabens in liquid PEG 400 to the behaviour of PEG 4000-parabens solid dispersions.
PubMed:Estrogenicity of parabens revisited: impact of parabens on early pregnancy and an uterotrophic assay in mice.
PubMed:[Butyl-p-hydroxybenzoate stimulates cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- transport].
PubMed:The aqueous photosensitized degradation of butylparaben.
PubMed:Single-drop microextraction followed by in-syringe derivatization and GC-MS detection for the determination of parabens in water and cosmetic products.
PubMed:Final amended report on the safety assessment of Methylparaben, Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, Isopropylparaben, Butylparaben, Isobutylparaben, and Benzylparaben as used in cosmetic products.
PubMed:Removal of estrogenic activity of iso-butylparaben and n-butylparaben by laccase in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole.
PubMed:Determination of parabens in environmental solid samples by ultrasonic-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Parabens in male infertility-is there a mitochondrial connection?
PubMed:Comparative study for the analysis of parabens by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with and without large-volume sample stacking technique.
PubMed:Short-term iontophoretic and post-iontophoretic transport of model penetrants across excised human epidermis.
PubMed:Comparison of artificial sebum with human and hamster sebum samples.
PubMed:Development of an in vitro test battery for assessing chemical effects on bovine germ cells under the ReProTect umbrella.
PubMed:The membrane lateral pressure-perturbing capacity of parabens and their effects on the mechanosensitive channel directly correlate with hydrophobicity.
PubMed:[Application of single drop microextraction in the determination of phthalate esters and parabens in drugs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].
PubMed:Evaluation of estrogenic activity of parabens and their chlorinated derivatives by using the yeast two-hybrid assay and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
PubMed:Higher levels of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in rat amniotic fluid than in maternal plasma after subcutaneous administration.
PubMed:Analysis and quantification of parabens in cosmetic products by utilizing hollow fibre-supported liquid membrane and high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.
PubMed:A structural and thermal investigation of the inclusion of parabens in heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)cyclomaltoheptaose.
PubMed:Do parabens have the ability to interfere with steroidogenesis?
PubMed:Preliminary ecological risk assessment of butylparaben and benzylparaben -2. Fate and partitioning in aquatic environments.
PubMed:Preliminary ecological risk assessment of butylparaben and benzylparaben -1. Removal efficiency in wastewater treatment, acute/chronic toxicity for aquatic organisms, and effects on medaka gene expression.
PubMed:Vitellogenin as a biomarker for estrogenic effects in brown trout, Salmo trutta: laboratory and field investigations.
PubMed:Impact of diisobutyl phthalate and other PPAR agonists on steroidogenesis and plasma insulin and leptin levels in fetal rats.
PubMed:Eco-friendly methodologies for the synthesis of some aromatic esters, well-known cosmetic ingredients.
PubMed:Dose-response of the cultured bovine lens to butyl, methyl and propyl parabens.
PubMed:Lack of effect of butylparaben and methylparaben on the reproductive system in male rats.
PubMed:On-line pretreatment and determination of parabens in cosmetic products by combination of flow injection analysis, solid-phase extraction and micellar electrokinetic chromatography.
PubMed:Preparation and characterization of inclusion complexes of a cationic beta-cyclodextrin polymer with butylparaben or triclosan.
PubMed:Association of nicotinamide with parabens: effect on solubility, partition and transdermal permeation.
PubMed:Urinary excretion of phthalates and paraben after repeated whole-body topical application in humans.
PubMed:Electrospun polymer nanofibers as a solid-phase extraction sorbent for the determination of trace pollutants in environmental water.
PubMed:Genotoxic effects of environmental estrogen-like compounds in CHO-K1 cells.
PubMed:Hydrolysis of a series of parabens by skin microsomes and cytosol from human and minipigs and in whole skin in short-term culture.
PubMed:Assessment of principal parabens used in cosmetics after their passage through human epidermis-dermis layers (ex-vivo study).
PubMed:Systemic uptake of diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and butyl paraben following whole-body topical application and reproductive and thyroid hormone levels in humans.
PubMed:[Enhancement of di-n-butyl phthalate on the estrogenic activities of esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid].
PubMed:[Simultaneous determination of nine kinds of preservatives in foods by HPLC].
PubMed:Effect of abrasion induced by a rotating brush on the skin permeation of solutes with varying physicochemical properties.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of antioxidants, preservatives and sweetener additives in food and cosmetics by flow injection analysis coupled to a monolithic column.
PubMed:[Simultaneous determination of phthalates and parabens in cosmetic products by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry coupled with solid phase extraction].
PubMed:Studies on the lipophilicity of vehicles (or co-vehicles) and botanical oils used in cosmetic products.
PubMed:Influence of crystal structure on the tableting properties of n-alkyl 4-hydroxybenzoate esters (parabens).
PubMed:Antiandrogenic properties of parabens and other phenolic containing small molecules in personal care products.
PubMed:Temporal stability of the conjugated species of bisphenol A, parabens, and other environmental phenols in human urine.
PubMed:Investigating protein haptenation mechanisms of skin sensitisers using human serum albumin as a model protein.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of seven phthalates and four parabens in cosmetic products using HPLC-DAD and GC-MS methods.
PubMed:Parabens inhibit human skin estrogen sulfotransferase activity: possible link to paraben estrogenic effects.
PubMed:Comparison of objective and sensory skin irritations of several cosmetic preservatives.
PubMed:Variability in human skin permeability in vitro: comparing penetrants with different physicochemical properties.
PubMed:Comparison of the global gene expression profiles produced by methylparaben, n-butylparaben and 17beta-oestradiol in MCF7 human breast cancer cells.
PubMed:Acceleration of paraben sorption to polyethylene terephthalate: a freeze-thaw phenomenon.
PubMed:The influence of physicochemical properties of preservative compounds on their distribution into various phases of oil in water submicron emulsion.
PubMed:Influence of crystal structure on the compaction properties of n-alkyl 4-hydroxybenzoate esters (parabens).
PubMed:Simultaneous analysis of antioxidants and preservatives in cosmetics by supercritical fluid extraction combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Effector-repressor interactions, binding of a single effector molecule to the operator-bound TtgR homodimer mediates derepression.
PubMed:Expression profiling of estrogen-responsive genes in breast cancer cells treated with alkylphenols, chlorinated phenols, parabens, or bis- and benzoylphenols for evaluation of estrogenic activity.
PubMed:Determination of parabens in pharmaceutical formulations by solid-phase microextraction-ion mobility spectrometry.
PubMed:A review of the endocrine activity of parabens and implications for potential risks to human health.
PubMed:The effect of unsaturated fatty acids in benzyl alcohol on the percutaneous permeation of three model penetrants.
PubMed:Morphometric analysis of mice uteri treated with the preservatives methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butylparaben.
PubMed:Estrogenicity of butylparaben in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed via food and water.
PubMed:Safety assessment of esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens).
PubMed:Estrogenic activity of cosmetic components in reporter cell lines: parabens, UV screens, and musks.
PubMed:Decrease in skin permeation and antibacterial effect of parabens by a polymeric additive, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-butylmetacrylate).
PubMed:Comment on developmental toxicity evaluation of butylparaben in Sprague-Dawley rats.
PubMed:In vivo and in vitro estrogen bioactivities of alkyl parabens.
PubMed:Separation of preservatives in cosmetic products by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.
PubMed:Developmental toxicity evaluation of butylparaben in Sprague-Dawley rats.
PubMed:[Inhibitory effect of zinc on beta-hexosaminidase release from RBL-2H3 cells by synthetic chemicals].
PubMed:Biotransformation of chlorpropham (CIPC) in isolated rat hepatocytes and xenoestrogenic activity of CIPC and its metabolites by in vitro assays.
PubMed:Effect of heat on the percutaneous absorption and skin retention of three model penetrants.
PubMed:Determination of cisapride, its oxidation product, propyl and butyl parabens in pharmaceutical dosage form by reversed-phase liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Additive estrogenic activities of the binary mixtures of four estrogenic chemicals in recombinant yeast expressing human estrogen receptor.
PubMed:[Determination of 4 antiseptics and 6 sunscreen agents in cosmetic products by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].
PubMed:Oestrogenic activity of benzylparaben.
PubMed:Effects of propyl paraben on the male reproductive system.
PubMed:Oestrogenic activity of isobutylparaben in vitro and in vivo.
PubMed:Benzoate X receptors alpha and beta are pharmacologically distinct and do not function as xenobiotic receptors.
PubMed:Effects of butyl paraben on the male reproductive system in mice.
PubMed:Effects of butylparaben on the male reproductive system in rats.
PubMed:Decreased sperm number and motile activity on the F1 offspring maternally exposed to butyl p-hydroxybenzoic acid (butyl paraben).
PubMed:Oestrogenic activity of parabens in MCF7 human breast cancer cells.
PubMed:The effect of surface charge and partition coefficient on the chemical stability of solutes in O/W emulsions.
PubMed:Controlled drug release from gels using surfactant aggregates: I. Effect of lipophilic interactions for a series of uncharged substances.
PubMed:ER-dependent estrogenic activity of parabens assessed by proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and expression of ERalpha and PR.
PubMed:A fast and efficient determination of amines and preservatives in cough and cold liquid and suspension formulations using a single isocratic ion-pairing high performance [correction of power] liquid chromatography method.
PubMed:The influence of type and quantity of model drug on the extrusion/spheronization of mixtures with microcrystalline cellulose. I. Extrusion parameters.
PubMed:The first example of a paraben-dependent antibody to an Rh protein.
PubMed:[Competitive binding of some alkyl p-hydroxybenzoates to human estrogen receptor alpha and beta].
PubMed:The preservatives ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben are oestrogenic in an in vivo fish assay.
PubMed:Separation and determination of haloperidol, parabens and some of their degradation products by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.
PubMed:Synthesis and biological activity of alpha-methylene-gamma-lactones as new aroma chemicals.
PubMed:Comparison of high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis for the determination of parabens in a cosmetic product.
PubMed:Determination of serum concentrations of glycyrrhizin in humans by semi-micro high-performance liquid chromatography after administration of a therapeutic dose.
PubMed:High performance liquid chromatographic determination of ambroxol in the presence of different preservatives in pharmaceutical formulations.
PubMed:Lack of oestrogenic effects of food preservatives (parabens) in uterotrophic assays.
PubMed:A novel percolation method for determining solubilities of pharmaceutical agents in semisolid vehicles.
PubMed:Physical properties of parabens and their mixtures: solubility in water, thermal behavior, and crystal structures.
PubMed:Membrane locus and pH sensitivity of paraben inhibition of alkali production by oral streptococci.
PubMed:A centrifuge technique for the evaluation of the extent of water movement in wet powder masses.
PubMed:Theoretical analysis of the effect of cutaneous metabolism on skin permeation of parabens based on a two-layer skin diffusion/metabolism model.
PubMed:Some alkyl hydroxy benzoate preservatives (parabens) are estrogenic.
PubMed:Prolonged erythema after chemical peel.
PubMed:Mechanism of p-hydroxybenzoate ester-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cytotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes.
PubMed:Lipo-microdialysis: a new microdialysis method for studying the pharmacokinetics of lipophilic substances.
PubMed:Perfusion cells for studying regional variation in oral-mucosal permeability in humans. I: Kinetic aspects in oral-mucosal absorption of alkylparabens.
PubMed:Skin permeation of parabens in excised guinea pig dorsal skin, its modification by penetration enhancers and their relationship with n-octanol/water partition coefficients.
PubMed:Cytotoxicity of food preservatives in cultured rat hepatocytes loaded with linolenic acid.
PubMed:Effects of skin metabolism on percutaneous penetration of lipophilic drugs.
PubMed:Effects of the structures of polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers on uptake of butyl p-hydroxybenzoate by Escherichia coli and its antibacterial activity.
PubMed:Irreversible paraben inhibition of glycolysis by Streptococcus mutans GS-5.
PubMed:Evaluation of stinging-inducing chemicals using cultured neuronal cells: an electrophysiological approach.
PubMed:High performance liquid chromatographic determination of phenoxetol, methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, n-propyl paraben, iso-butyl paraben, n-butyl paraben and croconazole.HCl.
PubMed:Relationship between uptake of p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters by Escherichia coli and antibacterial activity.
PubMed:Absorption of sunscreens and other compounds through human skin in vivo: derivation of a method to predict maximum fluxes.
PubMed:Contents of methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl- and benzylparaben in cosmetic products.
PubMed:Sulfation of parabens and tyrosylpeptides by bacterial arylsulfate sulfotransferases.
PubMed:Modulation by alkyl p-hydroxybenzoates of voltage- and ligand-gated channels in peripheral neuronal cells.
PubMed:Comparative analysis of percutaneous absorption enhancement by d-limonene and oleic acid based on a skin diffusion model.
PubMed:In vivo and in vitro analysis of skin penetration enhancement based on a two-layer diffusion model with polar and nonpolar routes in the stratum corneum.
PubMed:Production, nutritional profiles and storability of 'aadun' and 'kokoro': two corn products.
PubMed:The esters of p-hydroxy-benzoate (parabens) inhibit the release of lysosomal enzymes by mitogen-stimulated peripheral human lymphocytes in culture.
PubMed:Inclusion complexation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters with 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrins. On changes in solubility and antimicrobial activity.
PubMed:Determination of cinnamic acid and paeoniflorin in traditional Chinese medicinal preparations by high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Evaluation of the effect of butyl p-hydroxybenzoate on the proteolytic activity and membrane function of human spermatozoa.
PubMed:In vitro spermicidal activity of parabens against human spermatozoa.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of the nine food additives using high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Routine patch testing with paraben esters.
PubMed:Determination of p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters in cosmetics by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and fluorescence detection.
PubMed:Percutaneous absorption of butylparaben from liposomes in vitro.
PubMed:Preservative activity and in vivo percutaneous penetration of butylparaben entrapped in liposomes.
PubMed:Reactive oxygen species formed in vitro and in cells: role of thiols (GSH). Model studies with xanthine oxidase and horseradish peroxidase.
PubMed:Tumorigenicity study of butyl and isobutyl p-hydroxybenzoates administered orally to mice.
PubMed:High-performance liquid chromatography method for the separation of isomers of 9 beta-methylcarbacyclin (ciprostene) and the analysis of pharmaceutical samples.
PubMed:Percutaneous absorption of butylparaben in vitro. II. Effects of micellar trapping of the drug and percutaneous absorption of nonionic surfactants.
PubMed:Determinations of tiodazosin and levulinic acid from tablets by high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:The effect of parabens on DNA, RNA and protein synthesis in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.
PubMed:Determination of antimicrobial preservatives in pharmaceutical formulations using reverse-phase liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Specific and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of glyburide.
PubMed:Percutaneous absorption of butylparaben through guinea pig skin in vitro.
PubMed:On the solubilization properties of surfactant-polymer complexes.
PubMed:[Combined effect of antiseptics. II. Combined effect of sodium benzoate, butyl p-hydroxybenzoate and sodium dehydroacetate].
PubMed:[Combines effect of antiseptics. I. Combined effect of butyl p-hydroxybenzoate and sodium dehydroacetate].
PubMed:Inhibition of microorganisms by topical anesthetics.
PubMed:Investigation of some complexes formed in solution by caffeine. III. Interactions between caffeine and aspirin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, m-hydroxybenzoic acid, salicylic acid, salicylate ion, and butyl paraben.
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