thyme
plant material derived from the dried, crushed leaves of the thyme, thymus vulgaris l., lamiaceae
 
Notes:
None found
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Name: thymus vulgaris l.
FDA internal no.: 977052-36-0 
Category: spices, other natural seasonings and flavorings
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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FEMA Number: 3063  thyme
FDA Mainterm: THYME (THYMUS VULGARIS L.)
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 182 -- SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart A--General Provisions
Sec. 182.10 Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.
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Physical Properties:
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: herbal
Odor Strength: medium
 thyme  
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
thyme
 thyme  
Taste Description:
thyme
  
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: masking agents
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Suppliers:
American Natural & Organic Spices
Thyme Whole or Ground, Available as 100% Certified Organic
Aromaplant
Thyme
Bristol Botanicals
Thyme - ground Thymus vulgaris
Doug Jeffords Company
Thyme, Ground or Leaf
Elite Spice
Thyme
Fuchs North America
Thyme
Liberty Natural Products
THYME LEAF C/S PERU
Liberty Natural Products
THYME∼ENGLISH WHOLE USA
Rose Office
Thyme Bulgaria organic
Whole Herb
Thyme
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Safety Information:
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: spices, other natural seasonings and flavorings
Recommendation for thyme usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -550.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -13.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -5.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: -360.00000
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: 500.000001000.00000
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
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Safety References:
ClinicalTrials.gov: search
Daily Med: search
Toxicology Citations: Search
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
 thymus vulgaris l.
Chemidplus: 0977052360
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References:
 thymus vulgaris l.
Pubchem (sid): 135289143
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Other Information:
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status: View
Wikipedia: View
Read: Under the conditions of intended use - New developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients
Read: A GRAS assessment program for flavor ingredients
Read: Sensory testing for flavorings with modifying properties. Food Technology
Read: Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances
Read: A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food: essential oils
Read: FEMA Expert Panel: 30 Years of safety evaluation for the flavor industry
Read: Consumption ratio and food predominance of flavoring materials
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
None Found
 
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Potential Uses:
None Found
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 thyme
Search Trop  Picture
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Synonyms:
 plant material derived from the dried, crushed leaves of the thyme, thymus vulgaris l., lamiaceae
 thyme
 thyme bulgaria organic
 thyme whole or ground, available as 100% certified organic
 thymus vulgaris leaf
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Articles:
PubMed: Antimicrobial effect against different bacterial strains and bacterial adaptation to essential oils used as feed additives.
PubMed: Comparative inhibitory effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and mesophilic starter co-culture in cheese-mimicking models.
PubMed: Anti-adhesion activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) extract, thyme post-distillation waste, and olive (Olea europea L.) leaf extract against Campylobacter jejuni on polystyrene and intestine epithelial cells.
PubMed: Enriching the drinking water of rats with extracts of Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris increases their resistance to oxidative stress.
PubMed: Studies on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Five Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oils.
PubMed: Enhanced bactericidal effect of enterocin A in combination with thyme essential oils against L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7.
PubMed: Evaluation of Natural Compounds of Plant Origin for Inactivation of Enteric Viruses.
PubMed: Herbs and spices: characterization and quantitation of biologically-active markers for routine quality control by multiple headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with separative or non-separative analysis.
PubMed: Enhancing stability of essential oils by microencapsulation for preservation of button mushroom during postharvest.
PubMed: Antifungal properties and inhibitory effects upon aflatoxin production of Thymus vulgaris L. by Aspergillus flavus Link.
PubMed: Extraction of thymol from different varieties of thyme plants using green solvents.
PubMed: Thymus vulgaris (thyme) inhibits proliferation, adhesion, migration, and invasion of human colorectal cancer cells.
PubMed: Occurrence of Stachybotrys chartarum chemotype S in dried culinary herbs.
PubMed: Screening for bioactive metabolites in plant extracts modulating glucose uptake and fat accumulation.
PubMed: Comparison of Soxhlet, accelerated solvent and supercritical fluid extraction techniques for volatile (GC-MS and GC/FID) and phenolic compounds (HPLC-ESI/MS/MS) from Lamiaceae species.
PubMed: Decoction, infusion and hydroalcoholic extract of cultivated thyme: antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and phenolic characterisation.
PubMed: Antibacterial and antibiotic-potentiation activities of some Cameroonian food plants against multi-drug resistant gram-negative bacteria.
PubMed: Dietary Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) supplementation to growing rabbits: effects on raw and cooked meat quality, nutrient true retention and oxidative stability.
PubMed: Effects of thyme as a feed additive in broiler chickens on thymol in gut contents, blood plasma, liver and muscle.
PubMed: Antibacterial activity against Clostridium genus and antiradical activity of the essential oils from different origin.
PubMed: Activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil against Anisakis larvae.
PubMed: Essential oils of thyme and Rosemary in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in raw beef.
PubMed: Impact of shortwave ultraviolet (UV-C) radiation on the antioxidant activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.).
PubMed: Prospective evaluation of potential toxicity of repeated doses of Thymus vulgaris L. extracts in rats by means of clinical chemistry, histopathology and NMR-based metabonomic approach.
PubMed: Prolonging storage time of baby ginger by using a sand-based storage medium and essential oil treatment.
PubMed: The polyphenolic content of common lamiaceae species available as herbal tea products in Romanian pharmacies.
PubMed: Thymus vulgaris essential oil: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity.
PubMed: Identification and characterization of dimeric oxidation products of p-cymene-2,3-diol isolated from Thymus vulgaris L.
PubMed: The effect of vacuum packaging, EDTA, oregano and thyme oils on the microbiological quality of chicken's breast.
PubMed: Effects of Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris on oxidant-induced DNA damage and antioxidant status in HepG2 cells.
PubMed: Cytotoxic impact of phenolics from Lamiaceae species on human breast cancer cells.
PubMed: Antioxidant and anti-glycation activities correlates with phenolic composition of tropical medicinal herbs.
PubMed: Modelling drying kinetics of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.): theoretical and empirical models, and neural networks.
PubMed: The evaluation of a fast and simple pesticide multiresidue method in various herbs by gas chromatography.
PubMed: Efficacy of plant essential oils on postharvest control of rots caused by fungi on different stone fruits in vivo.
PubMed: The enhancement of antioxidant compounds extracted from Thymus vulgaris using enzymes and the effect of extracting solvent.
PubMed: Assessment of inhibitory potential of essential oils on natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production in wheat.
PubMed: Relationship between total phenolic content, antioxidant potential, and antiglycation abilities of common culinary herbs and spices.
PubMed: Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels.
PubMed: Effects of temperature and time on polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity in the pressurized hot water extraction of deodorized thyme (Thymus vulgaris).
PubMed: Chemical composition, olfactory analysis and antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris chemotypes geraniol, 4-thujanol/terpinen-4-ol, thymol and linalool cultivated in southern France.
PubMed: Repellency of essential oils to Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) as affected by type of oil and polymer release.
PubMed: Effects of Thymol and Carvacrol, Constituents of Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil, on the Inflammatory Response.
PubMed: The effects of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) essential oils on Brochothrix thermosphacta and on the shelf life of beef packaged in high-oxygen modified atmosphere.
PubMed: Antioxidative effect of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) in sunflower oil.
PubMed: The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality.
PubMed: In vitro inhibitory activity of essential oil vapors against Ascosphaera apis.
PubMed: Comparative study of rosmarinic acid content in some plants of Labiatae family.
PubMed: An investigation on characteristics of rainbow trout coated using chitosan assisted with thyme essential oil.
PubMed: Antimicrobial activity of food-compatible plant extracts and chitosan against naturally occurring micro-organisms in tomato juice.
PubMed: Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Serra de Mariola Natural Park, South-Eastern Spain.
PubMed: The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and extracts of some medicinal plants grown in Ash-shoubak region - South of Jordan.
PubMed: Evaluation of essential oils for maintaining postharvest quality of Thompson seedless table grape.
PubMed: Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect of carvacrol on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG-2.
PubMed: Application of response surface methodology to optimize pressurized liquid extraction of antioxidant compounds from sage (Salvia officinalis L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.).
PubMed: Antioxidant properties of Thymus vulgaris oil against aflatoxin-induce oxidative stress in male rats.
PubMed: Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils against bacterial and fungal species involved in food poisoning and/or food decay.
PubMed: Herbicidal activity of volatiles from coriander, winter savory, cotton lavender, and thyme isolated by hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction.
PubMed: An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants.
PubMed: Biodegradable gelatin-chitosan films incorporated with essential oils as antimicrobial agents for fish preservation.
PubMed: Chemical composition and antioxidant and anti-Listeria activities of essential oils obtained from some Egyptian plants.
PubMed: Inhibition of growth and caseinase production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli 28 by combination of low pH and NaCl, potassium sorbate or Thymus vulgaris extract.
PubMed: Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs.
PubMed: Influence of growth regulators in biomass production and volatile profile of in vitro plantlets of Thymus vulgaris L.
PubMed: Effects of water extracts of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on alcohol abuse.
PubMed: Food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi.
PubMed: Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities.
PubMed: Comparison of microwave-assisted hydrodistillation withthe traditional hydrodistillation method in the extractionof essential oils from Thymus vulgaris L.
PubMed: Antioxidative properties of Thymus vulgaris leaves: comparison of different extracts and essential oil chemotypes.
PubMed: Antibacterial efficiency of Spanish Satureja montana essential oil against Listeria monocytogenes among natural flora in minced pork.
PubMed: Acaricidal activity of Thymus vulgaris oil and its main components against Tyrophagus putrescentiae, a stored food mite.
PubMed: Evaluation of antibacterial activity of selected Iranian essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in nutrient broth medium.
PubMed: Effect of gamma and e-beam radiation on the essential oils of Thymus vulgaris thymoliferum, Eucalyptus radiata, and Lavandula angustifolia.
PubMed: Vapor-phase activities of cinnamon, thyme, and oregano essential oils and key constituents against foodborne microorganisms.
PubMed: The effects of essential oils and aqueous tea infusions of oregano (Origanum vulgare L. spp. hirtum), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) on the copper-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins.
PubMed: Enhancing the retention of phytochemicals and organoleptic attributes in muscadine grape juice through a combined approach between dense phase CO2 processing and copigmentation.
PubMed: Antimicrobial effects of selected plant essential oils on the growth of a Pseudomonas putida strain isolated from meat.
PubMed: Testing of the palatability of Thymus vulgaris L. and Origanum vulgare L. as flavouring feed additive for weaner pigs on the basis of a choice experiment.
PubMed: Characterization of the volatile composition of essential oils of some lamiaceae spices and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the entire oils.
PubMed: A chemical polymorphism in a multitrophic setting: thyme monoterpene composition and food web structure.
PubMed: Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) leaves and its constituents increase the activities of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in mouse liver.
PubMed: Antioxidant capacity of some herbs/spices from cameroon: a comparative study of two methods.
PubMed: Respiratory effects of exposure to dust from herbs.
PubMed: Volatile components and key odorants of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil extracts obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and supercritical fluid extraction.
PubMed: RP-HPLC analysis of the phenolic compounds of plant extracts. investigation of their antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity.
PubMed: Evaluation of five essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon for controlling food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi.
PubMed: In vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils from aromatic plants against selected foodborne pathogens.
PubMed: Composition and functional properties of the essential oil of amazonian basil, Ocimum micranthum Willd., Labiatae in comparison with commercial essential oils.
PubMed: Influence of nitrogen fertilizers on the yield and composition of thyme (Thymus vulgaris).
PubMed: Essential oils from Mediterranean lamiaceae as weed germination inhibitors.
PubMed: Effects of herbal essential oils used to extend the shelf life of freshwater-reared Asian sea bass fish (Lates calcarifer).
PubMed: Antibacterial activity of selected plant essential oils against Escherichia coli O157:H7.
PubMed: Human platelet aggregation inhibitors from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.).
PubMed: Antioxidant activity of chemical components from sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) measured by the oil stability index method.
PubMed: Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs.
PubMed: Correlation between the chemical and genetic relationships among commercial thyme cultivars.
PubMed: Acute, sublethal, antifeedant, and synergistic effects of monoterpenoid essential oil compounds on the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lep., Noctuidae).
PubMed: Phenolic antioxidants from herbs and spices.
PubMed: Inhibition of Aeromonas caviae and A. sobria by sodium choloride, citric acid, ascorbic acid, potassium sorbate and extracts of Thymus vulgaris.
PubMed: GC-MS analysis of essential oils from some Greek aromatic plants and their fungitoxicity on Penicillium digitatum.
PubMed: Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils.
PubMed: Azo dye-mediated regulation of total phenolics and peroxidase activity in thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) clonal lines.
PubMed: Acetophenone glycosides from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.).
PubMed: Antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Thymus vulgaris L. measured using a bioimpedometric method.
PubMed: Food-borne pathogens, health and role of dietary phytochemicals.
PubMed: Control of Aspergillus flavus in maize with plant essential oils and their components.
PubMed: Labiatae allergy: systemic reactions due to ingestion of oregano and thyme.
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