sterculia urens gum
dried exudate (karaya gum) of the tree sterculia urens, sterculiaceae
polysaccharide gum from sterculia urens (sterculia). it is used as a suspending or stabilizing agent in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals; a bulk-forming laxative; a surgical lubricant and adhesive; and in the treatment of skin ulcers. Emulsifier, thickener, foam stabiliser, flavouring ingredient, gelling agent Gum Karaya is a vegetable gum produced as an exudate by trees of the genus Sterculia. Chemically, gum karaya is an acid polysaccharide composed of the sugars galactose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid. It is used as a thickener, emulsifier and laxative in foods, and as a denture adhesive. It is also used to adulterate Gum Tragacanth due to their similar physical characteristics. As a food additive it has E number E416.
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      11-15000 KARAYA GUM, Kosher
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Name: sterculia urens roxb. gum
CAS Number: 9000-36-6 
ECHA EC Number: 232-539-4
MDL: MFCD00131251
Category: thickeners, gelling agents, stabalizers and emulsifiers
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
184.1339 Sterculia Gum (karaya gum) View-review
EU SANCO Karaya gum View-review
JECFA Food Additive: Karaya Gum
GSFA Codex: Karaya gum (416)
DG SANTE Food Additives: karaya gum
FEMA Number: 2605  karaya gum
FDA Regulation:
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.178 Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other foods.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.179 Pasteurized process cheese spread.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products
Sec. 150.141 Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products
Sec. 150.161 Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.

Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
Sec. 184.1349 Karaya gum (sterculia gum).
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: pale yellow to pinkish brown solid lumps or powder (est)
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Shelf Life: 12.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage: store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
Insoluble in:
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Strength: none
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: binding agents
emulsion stabilisers
hair fixing agents
masking agents
viscosity controlling agents
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Gum Karaya
Alland & Robert
Gum Karaya
Odor: bland
Use: Gum Karaya (gum sterculia) is the gum-exudation, hardened by air, obtained by the incision of the stems and branches of Sterculia Urens and others species of the Sterculiaceae family (Tomentosa, Setigera).The harvesting areas are mostly situated in west Africa and India.
Bristol Botanicals
Karaya gum Sterculia species
Charkit Chemical
Connect Chemicals
Karaya gum
Pangaea Sciences
Penta International
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Safety Information:
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
None - None found.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 36/37/39 - Wear suitable clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50  9100 mg/kg
Food & Drug Research Laboratories, Inc., Papers. Vol. 124, Pg. -, 1976.

oral-rabbit LD50  6400 mg/kg
Food & Drug Research Laboratories, Inc., Papers. Vol. 124, Pg. -, 1976.

oral-mouse LD50  8200 mg/kg
Food & Drug Research Laboratories, Inc., Papers. Vol. 124, Pg. -, 1976.

oral-hamster LD50  6900 mg/kg
Food & Drug Research Laboratories, Inc., Papers. Vol. 124, Pg. -, 1976.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: thickeners, gelling agents, stabalizers and emulsifiers
Recommendation for sterculia urens gum usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -36.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -13.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -1300.00000
fruit ices: -1300.00000
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: 1.0000044.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: -40.00000
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Re-evaluation of karaya gum (E 416) as a food additive
View page or View pdf
Daily Med: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 9000-36-6
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 2
 sterculia urens roxb. gum
Chemidplus: 0009000366
RTECS: WI9370000 for cas# 9000-36-6
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 sterculia urens roxb. gum
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 9000-36-6
Pubchem (sid): 135356493
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Other Information:
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
KEGG (GenomeNet): C08826
FooDB: FDB020190
Export Tariff Code: 1301.39.0000
Wikipedia: View
Read: Under the conditions of intended use - New developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients
Read: A GRAS assessment program for flavor ingredients
Read: Sensory testing for flavorings with modifying properties. Food Technology
Read: Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances
Read: A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food: essential oils
Read: FEMA Expert Panel: 30 Years of safety evaluation for the flavor industry
Read: Consumption ratio and food predominance of flavoring materials
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Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
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Potential Uses:
 binding agents 
 emulsion stabilisers 
 hair fixing agents 
 viscosity controlling agents 
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 sterculia setigera
Search Trop  Picture
 sterculia urens
Search Trop  Picture
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 dried exudate (karaya gum) of the tree sterculia urens, sterculiaceae
 firmiana simplex gum
 gum karaya
 karaya gum
 sterculia gum
 sterculia setigera gum
indian tragacanth gum
 tragacanth, indian
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PubMed: Gastroretentive mucoadhesive tablet of lafutidine for controlled release and enhanced bioavailability.
PubMed: Natural gum as mucoadhesive controlled release carriers: evaluation of Cefpodoxime Proxetil by D-Optimal design technique.
PubMed: Rheological properties of gamma-irradiated antimicrobial wafers and in vitro efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
PubMed: Utility of gastric-retained alginate gels to modulate pharmacokinetic profiles in rats.
PubMed: Studies on stercuia gum formulations in the form of osmotic core tablet for colon-specific drug delivery of azathioprine.
PubMed: Green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using gum karaya as a biotemplate and their antibacterial application.
PubMed: Oil-entrapped sterculia gum-alginate buoyant systems of aceclofenac: development and in vitro evaluation.
PubMed: Formulation and evaluation of non-effervescent floating tablets of losartan potassium.
PubMed: Formulation development and in-vitro/in-vivo correlation for a novel Sterculia gum-based oral colon-targeted drug delivery system of azathioprine.
PubMed: Lyophilised wafers as vehicles for the topical release of chlorhexidine digluconate--release kinetics and efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
PubMed: In vitro efficacy of antimicrobial wafers against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
PubMed: Utility of in situ sodium alginate/karaya gum gels to facilitate gastric retention in rodents.
PubMed: A novel hydrogel plug of Sterculia urens for pulsatile delivery: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.
PubMed: The effect of denture adhesives on Candida albicans growth in vitro.
PubMed: [Analysis of thickening polysaccharides by the improved diethyldithioacetal derivatization method].
PubMed: Physical properties of gum karaya-starch-essential oil patches.
PubMed: Natural polysaccharides as active biomaterials in nanostructured films for sensing.
PubMed: Karaya root saponin exerts a hypocholesterolemic response in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.
PubMed: Development of Denticap, a matrix based sustained release formulation for treatment of toothache, dental infection and other gum problem.
PubMed: Modification of sterculia gum with methacrylic acid to prepare a novel drug delivery system.
PubMed: Evaluation of Sterculia foetida gum as controlled release excipient.
PubMed: Gastroretentive drug delivery system of metoclopramide hydrochloride: formulation and in vitro evaluation.
PubMed: Long-term survival of a baby with body stalk anomaly: report of a case.
PubMed: Effects of the method of preparation on the compression, mechanical, and release properties of khaya gum matrices.
PubMed: Outbreak of cutaneous Rhizopus arrhizus infection associated with karaya ostomy bags.
PubMed: Polyethylene glycol, unique among laxatives, suppresses aberrant crypt foci, by elimination of cells.
PubMed: [Clinical evaluation of hydrocolloidal dressing in 147 patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery].
PubMed: Analysis of gums by capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence.
PubMed: Evaluation of selected polysaccharide excipients in buccoadhesive tablets for sustained release of nicotine.
PubMed: Suppressive effect of viscous dietary fiber on elevations of uric acid in serum and urine induced by dietary RNA in rats is associated with strength of viscosity.
PubMed: Nimesulide-modified gum karaya solid mixtures: preparation, characterization, and formulation development.
PubMed: In vivo evaluation of modified gum karaya as a carrier for improving the oral bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble drug, nimodipine.
PubMed: Exudate gums: occurrence, production, and applications.
PubMed: Biological activity of some naturally occurring resins, gums and pigments against in vitro LDL oxidation.
PubMed: Flow behavior characteristics of ice cream mix made with buffalo milk and various stabilizers.
PubMed: Evaluation of modified gum karaya as carrier for the dissolution enhancement of poorly water-soluble drug nimodipine.
PubMed: Compressed xanthan and karaya gum matrices: hydration, erosion and drug release mechanisms.
PubMed: Development and evaluation of a multiple-unit oral sustained release dosage form for S(+)-ibuprofen: preparation and release kinetics.
PubMed: Relationship between swelling, erosion and drug release in hydrophillic natural gum mini-matrix formulations.
PubMed: Enhanced transdermal delivery of AZT (Zidovudine) using iontophoresis and penetration enhancer.
PubMed: [Esophageal obstruction after laxative administration].
PubMed: Micropropagation of Sterculia urens Roxb. - an endangered tree species.
PubMed: Characterization of carbohydrate structural features recognized by anti-arabinogalactan-protein monoclonal antibodies.
PubMed: 'Last-resort' dressings for intractable pressures sores.
PubMed: Caecal and faecal short-chain fatty acids and stool output in rats fed on diets containing non-starch polysaccharides.
PubMed: Clinical study: peristomal skin irritation in colostomy patients.
PubMed: Skin contact electrodes for medical applications.
PubMed: [Innovations for a better quality of life].
PubMed: A modified Kapur scale for evaluating denture retention and stability: methodology study.
PubMed: [The use of tapioca as coverage in viral titration].
PubMed: Vegetable gums modify lectin hemagglutinability.
PubMed: Dietary fibre and renal failure: comparison of sterculia and ispaghula.
PubMed: [Bulk-forming agents as laxatives in geriatric patients].
PubMed: Effect of soluble fibers on plasma lipids, glucose tolerance and mineral balance.
PubMed: Prevention of bacterial adhesion to denture acrylic.
PubMed: Evidence for the safety of gum karaya (Sterculia spp.) as a food additive.
PubMed: Salicylic acid in karaya gum patch as a treatment for verruca vulgaris.
PubMed: Transdermal delivery of salicylic acid in the treatment of viral papillomas.
PubMed: Magnesium hydroxide as a complementary aluminium-free phosphate binder to moderate doses of oral calcium in uraemic patients on chronic haemodialysis: lack of deleterious effect on bone mineralisation.
PubMed: Karaya gum electrocardiographic electrodes for preterm infants.
PubMed: Mineral balance in adult men: effect of four refined fibers.
PubMed: [Evaluation of a new therapy (beidellian montmorillonite--guar gum) in the treatment of constipation].
PubMed: Transmission electron microscopy of jejunum, ileum, and caecum tissues from rats fed with gums arabic, karaya and tragacanth.
PubMed: Nitrogen conversion factors for the proteinaceous content of gums permitted as food additives.
PubMed: Contact dermatitis due to karaya gum and induced by the application of electrodes.
PubMed: Immunogenicity, immunological cross reactivity and non-specific irritant properties of the exudate gums, arabic, karaya and tragacanth.
PubMed: [Treatment of colonic obstruction by karaya gum and polyvinylpolypyrrolidone].
PubMed: Sterculia for wound healing.
PubMed: The absence of rhamnose in human urine following the ingestion of gum karaya (Sterculia).
PubMed: Karaya sensitivity.
PubMed: Blood lipids and lipoproteins in adult men fed four refined fibers.
PubMed: [Treatment of acute diarrhea in general practice. Therapeutic experiences with Karaya bismuth].
PubMed: Combination of karaya-based skin barrier and a closed-cell foam in pouching of urinary diversions.
PubMed: Alimentary tract fistula: stomatherapy techniques of management.
PubMed: The effects of dietary gum karaya (Sterculia) in man.
PubMed: Karaya reconsidered.
PubMed: Immunogenicity of foods and food additives--in vivo testing of gums arabic, karaya and tragacanth.
PubMed: A study of the fate of gum karaya in the rat.
PubMed: Subchronic toxicity study in rats fed gum karaya.
PubMed: Karaya gel in the treatment of leg ulcers.
PubMed: [Study of urostomy bags with improved karaya and micropore, series 143].
PubMed: Demineralization of human dental enamel by karaya gum solutions.
PubMed: The effect of Karaya gum on tooth enamel.
PubMed: [Comparative study of Kaologeais and Smectite in the treatment of colopathies].
PubMed: [Action of Poly-Karaya in functional colopathies. Results of a multicenter study of 114 patients].
PubMed: [Poly-Karaya and anal surgery].
PubMed: Denture adhesives - their effect on the mobility of full upper dentures during chewing. A cineradiographic study.
PubMed: [Clinical study of a new medication in the treatment of functional colopathies].
PubMed: [A multicenter controlled trial of a combination of kaolin, sterculia gum, meprobamate, and magnesium salts, in the irritable bowel syndrome (author's transl)].
PubMed: The composition and rheology of denture adhesives.
PubMed: [Protection of the skin of the patient with colostomy. (2). Use of karaya gum products for the protection of the skin].
PubMed: Denture adhesives: a side effect.
PubMed: The evaluation of a new appetite-reducing agent (Prefil) in the management of obesity.
PubMed: Oesophageal obstruction due to hygroscopic gum laxative.
PubMed: Karaya gum hypersensitivity in an enterostomal therapist.
PubMed: The palatability of colloidal bulk forming agents.
PubMed: Contact dermatitis from a Karaya seal ring.
PubMed: Treatment of shallow soft tissue ulcers with an infrequent dressing technique.
PubMed: [Complications after the establishment of colostomies].
PubMed: [Functional and organic intestinal diseases. Therapeutic experience using Karaya bismuth].
PubMed: [Contact dermatitis caused by Karaya gum].
PubMed: The treatment of pressure sores in geriatric patients: a trial of sterculia powder.
PubMed: [Treatment of chronic colonic diseases with a new topical digestive agent, mucilage (karaya gum) combined with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (P.V.P.P.)].
PubMed: Decubitus ulcers and the karaya treatment program.
PubMed: [Treatment of functional intestinal disorders with carbomucil].
PubMed: Protection of the skin around intestinal fistulas.
PubMed: [Treatment of constipation and colitis by the bismuth subnitrate--karaya gum association].
PubMed: [Therapeutic trial of a combination of an insoluble bismuth salt and a Karaya gum in gastrointestinal disorders].
PubMed: [The use of karaya-gum powder and aluminum hydroxide gel in cases of external gastrointestinal fistula or stoma].
PubMed: Solid state karaya gum ring for use in disposable and permanent ileostomy appliances.
PubMed: Is gum karaya (Sterculia urens Roxb. Family: Sterculiaceae) allergenic?
PubMed: [Colloids in diarrhea; agar and karaya gum].
PubMed: [Colloids in diarrhea; agar and karaya gum].
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