agar gum
gelidium spp. gum
 
Notes:
Agar-Agar is widely used as a treatment for constipation, but is usually employed with Cascara when atony of the intestinal muscles is present. It does not increase peristaltic action. Its therapeutic value depends on the ability of the dry Agar to absorb and retain moisture. Its action is, mechanical and analogous to that of the cellulose of vegetable foods, aiding the regularity of the bowel movements. It is sometimes used as an adulterant of jams and jellies. a complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from gelidium cartilagineum, gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. it is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. An important thickener, stabiliser and gelling agent in the food industry Agar consists of a mixture of agarose and agaropectin. Agarose is a linear polymer, of molecular weight about 120,000, based on the -(1->3)-?-D-galactopyranose-(1->4)-3,6-anhydro-?-L-galactopyranose unit, the major differences from carrageenans being the presence of L-3,6-anhydro-?-galactopyranose rather than D-3,6-anhydro-?-galactopyranose units and the lack of sulfate groups. Agaropectin is a heterogeneous mixture of smaller molecules that occur in lesser amounts. Their structures are similar but slightly branched and sulfated, and they may have methyl and pyruvic acid ketal substituents. They gel poorly and may be simply removed from the excellent gelling agarose molecules by using their charge. The quality of agar is improved by alkaline treatment that converts of any L-galactose-6-sulfate to 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose.; Agar is a heterogeneous mixture of two classes of polysaccharide: agaropectin and agarose. Although both polysaccharide classes share the same galactose-based backbone, agaropectin is heavily modified with acidic side-groups, such as sulfate and pyruvate. The neutral charge and lower degree of chemical complexity of agarose make it less likely to interact with biomolecules, such as proteins. Gels made from purified agarose have a relatively large pore size, making them useful for size-separation of large molecules, such as proteins or protein complexes >200 kilodaltons, or DNA fragments >100 basepairs. Agarose can be used for electrophoretic separation in agarose gel electrophoresis or for column-based gel filtration chromatography.; Agar or agar agar is a gelatinous substance derived from seaweed. Historically and in a modern context, it is chiefly used as an ingredient in desserts throughout Japan, but in the past century has found extensive use as a solid substrate to contain culture medium for microbiological work. The gelling agent is an unbranched polysaccharide obtained from the cell walls of some species of red algae, primarily from the genera Gelidium and Gracilaria, or seaweed (Sphaerococcus euchema). Commercially it is derived primarily from Gelidium amansii.; Agar-Agar is a natural vegetable gelatin counterpart originally eaten in Japan. White and semi-translucent, it is sold in packages as washed and dried strips or in powdered form. It can be used to make jellies, puddings and custards. For making jelly, it is boiled in water until the solids dissolve. One then adds sweetener, flavouring, colouring, fruit or vegetables, and pours the liquid into molds to be served as desserts and vegetable aspics, or incorporated with other desserts, such as a jelly layer on a cake.; Agar-agar is approximately 80% fiber, so it can serve as a great intestinal regulator. Its bulk quality is behind one of the latest fad diets in Asia, the kanten diet. Once ingested, kanten triples in size and absorbs water. This results in the consumer feeling more full. Recently this diet has received some press coverage in the United States as well. The diet has shown promise in obesity studies.; Chemically, agar is a polymer made up of subunits of the sugar galactose. Agar polysaccharides serve as the primary structural support for the algae's cell walls.; The word "agar" comes from the Malay word agar-agar (meaning jelly). It is also known as kanten, China grass, or Japanese isinglass. The various species of alga or seaweed from which agar is derived are sometimes called Ceylon moss. Gracilaria lichenoides specifically is referred to as agal-agal or Ceylon agar.
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      01-11925 AGAR POWDER N.F., Kosher
       
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      W201201 Agar, fine powder, FCC
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Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
Name: gelidium spp. gum
CAS Number: 9002-18-0 
Other: 63241-81-6
ECHA EC Number: 232-658-1
FDA UNII: 3PBT7NM2M0
MDL: MFCD00081288
CoE Number: 212
Formula: unspecified
Category: thickeners, gelling agents, stabalizers and emulsifiers
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
184.1115 Agar-agar View-review
EU SANCO Agar View-review
JECFA Food Additive: Agar
GSFA Codex: Agar (406)
DG SANTE Food Additives: agar agar
FEMA Number: 2012  agar agar
FDA Mainterm: AGAR (GELIDIUM SPP.)
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 150 -- FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products
Sec. 150.141 Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.


FDA PART 150 -- FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products
Sec. 150.161 Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.


FDA PART 184 -- DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
Sec. 184.1115 Agar-agar.
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: pale beige powder (est)
Assay: 90.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
PH Number: 5.90
Shelf Life: 24.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage: store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 water
Insoluble in:
 paraffin oil
Similar Items: note
agar-agar extract
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Strength: none
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
odorless
  
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: binding agents
masking agents
viscosity controlling agents
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Suppliers:
American International Chemical
Agar High Gel Strength Bacteriological Grade
American International Chemical
Agar, Bateriological
Anhui Haibei
Agar
Bristol Botanicals
Agar Agar Gum Gelidium amansii
Foodchem International
Agar Agar (1000)
Foodchem International
Agar Agar (700)
Indenta Group
Agar Agar
Pangaea Sciences
Agar Agar
Parchem
agar gum
Penta International
AGAR POWDER N.F., Kosher
Prinova
Agar Agar
Sigma-Aldrich
Agar, fine powder, FCC
Certified Food Grade Products
Sinofi Ingredients
Agar Gum
Odor: characteristic
Use: Stabilizer, Emulsifier, Thickener, Drying agent, Surface finishing agent, Formulation aid, Humectant, Protective colloid; Antistaling agent in baking, confections, meats, poultry; Thickener in processed foods, desserts, beverages; Flavoring agent in foods, beverages, ice cream, baked goods, icings, meringue.
TIC Gums
TIC Pretested® Agar Agar 100 Powder
Flavor: characteristic
TIC Pretested® Agar Agar 100 is a high gel strength 100 mesh extract from the Gracilaria species of red seaweed. The coarse mesh characteristic improves dispersibility. In high sugar systems such as icings and glazes, Agar 100 holds water thereby reducing the tendency of the glaze to chip, crack, or weep and reducing sugar crystallization.
TIC Gums
Ticaloid® DG 671
Flavor: characteristic
Ticaloid® DG 671 is a cost effective alternative to agar in water-based glazes and icings. This blend should be used at 85% of the level of agar to maintain glaze viscosity and stability. Typical usage levels are 0.2% - 0.4% based on powdered sugar weight.
Zhong Ya Chemical
Agar Gum
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Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
None - None found.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
Acute toxicity, Oral (Category 4), H302
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogramexclamation-mark.jpg
 
Signal word Warning
Hazard statement(s)
H302 - Harmful if swallowed
Precautionary statement(s)
P264 - Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P270 - Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.
P301 + P312 - IF SWALLOWED: call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician IF you feel unwell.
P330 - Rinse mouth.
P501 - Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50  11000 mg/kg
Food & Drug Research Laboratories, Inc., Papers. Vol. 124, Pg. -, 1976.

oral-rabbit LD50  5800 mg/kg
Food & Drug Research Laboratories, Inc., Papers. Vol. 124, Pg. -, 1976.

oral-mouse LD50  16000 mg/kg
Food & Drug Research Laboratories, Inc., Papers. Vol. 124, Pg. -, 1976.

oral-hamster LD50  6100 mg/kg
Food & Drug Research Laboratories, Inc., Papers. Vol. 124, Pg. -, 1976.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: thickeners, gelling agents, stabalizers and emulsifiers
Recommendation for agar gum usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -490.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): 420.000001000.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: 300.0000030000.00000
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: 130.000001000.00000
fruit ices: 130.000001000.00000
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: --
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Re-evaluation of agar (E 406) as a food additive
View page or View pdf
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 9002-18-0
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 2
 gelidium spp. gum
Chemidplus: 0009002180
EPA/NOAA CAMEO: hazardous materials
RTECS: AW7950000 for cas# 9002-18-0
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References:
 gelidium spp. gum
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 9002-18-0
Pubchem (sid): 135350556
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Other Information:
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
KEGG (GenomeNet): C08815
FooDB: FDB016843
Export Tariff Code: 1302.31.0000
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status: View
Haz-Map: View
Household Products: Search
Wikipedia: View
Read: Under the conditions of intended use - New developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients
Read: A GRAS assessment program for flavor ingredients
Read: Sensory testing for flavorings with modifying properties. Food Technology
Read: Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances
Read: A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food: essential oils
Read: FEMA Expert Panel: 30 Years of safety evaluation for the flavor industry
Read: Consumption ratio and food predominance of flavoring materials
FAO: Agar
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
None Found
 
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Potential Uses:
 binding agents 
 gel forming agents 
 viscosity controlling agents 
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 gelidium spp.
Search Trop  Picture
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Synonyms:
 agal agal gum
 agar agar
 agar agar gum
 agar agar u.s.p. #1
 agar gum
 agar high gel strength bacteriological grade
 agar powder
 agar powder N.F.
 agar-agar gum
 agar, bateriological
 agaroid RS-30 powder
 agaroid RS-500 powder
 agaroid RS-507 powder
 agaroid RS-520 powder
 agaroid RS-575 powder
 agaropectin mixture with agarose
 agarose mixture with agaropectin
 aloe wood gum
 bengal gelatin
 bengal isinglass
 digenea simplex mucilage
 gelidium amansii kutz. gum
 gelidium spp. gum
 layor carang
 macassar gelatin
 TIC pretested agar agar 100 FCC/NF powder
 TIC pretested agar agar 100-44 HG
 TIC pretested agar agar 150 FCC/NF powder
 TIC pretested agar RS-100 powder
 TICorganic agar 150-C FCC/NF
 vegetable gelatin
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