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triticum aestivum germ extract
extract of the germ of the wheat, triticum vulgare, gramineae

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Name:triticum aestivum l. germ extract
CAS Number: 84012-44-2
ECHA EC Number:281-689-7
FDA UNII: Search
Category:cosmetic ingredient for skin conditioning
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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Physical Properties:
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data2
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: skin conditioning
skin protecting agents
Charkit Chemical
Grau Aromatics
H. Erhard Wagner
PhytoVital Wheat Germ
Odor: characteristic
Use: PhytoVital - Wheat Germ is obtained through a gentle extraction of dried wheat germs. The extract contains carbohydrates, different kinds of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Polypeptides, amino acids and vitamins (vitamin B 6, niacinamide) are as well found. PhytVital - Wheat Germ possesses a high affinity to the skin and determines a natural care of the skin. It exhibits a strong skin hydrating effect due to its polysaccharide/amino acid complex. Young attractive skin is characterized by elasticity and softness associated with correct skin hydration. Signs of aging skin are flaking, age spots and keratinizing which are positively influenced. ME-WEIKW.DOC Feb. 97 PhytoVital - Wheat Germ is stable at ambient temperatures in the original unopened container for a minimum of one year.
Lipotec USA
Actiphyte® of Wheat Germ Extract
The efficient plant solution against aging spots
The detoxifying agent from plant origin
Natural origin SOD
SRS Aromatics
Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
cosmetic ingredient for skin conditioning
Recommendation for triticum aestivum germ extract usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for triticum aestivum germ extract flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
Daily Med:search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
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EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:2
triticum aestivum l. germ extract
 triticum aestivum l. germ extract
Pubchem (sid):135283624
Other Information:
Export Tariff Code:1302.19.0000
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
Search Trop Picture
 extract of the germ of the wheat, triticum vulgare, gramineae
 triticum vulgare germ extract
 wheat germ extract (triticum aestivum)
 wheatgerm extract (triticum aestivum)


PubMed:Identification of short untranslated regions that sufficiently enhance translation in high-quality wheat germ extract.
PubMed:Tobacco BY-2 cell-free lysate: an alternative and highly-productive plant-based in vitro translation system.
PubMed:Development of a full-length human protein production pipeline.
PubMed:In situ visualization of plasma cells producing antibodies reactive to Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontitis: The application of the enzyme-labeled antigen method.
PubMed:Translational readthrough in Tobacco necrosis virus-D.
PubMed:Fermented wheat germ extract induced cell death and enhanced cytotoxicity of Cisplatin and 5-Fluorouracil on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
PubMed:A cell-free expression platform for production of protein microarrays.
PubMed:Cell-free translation of biofuel enzymes.
PubMed:Eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4F binding to barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) 3'-untranslated region correlates with translation efficiency.
PubMed:Molecular chaperoning function of Ric-8 is to fold nascent heterotrimeric G protein ╬▒ subunits.
PubMed:Leader sequences of eukaryotic mRNA can be simultaneously bound to initiating 80S ribosome and 40S ribosomal subunit.
PubMed:Characterizing the efficacy of fermented wheat germ extract against ovarian cancer and defining the genomic basis of its activity.
PubMed:Untranslated regions of diverse plant viral RNAs vary greatly in translation enhancement efficiency.
PubMed:Rational construction of eukaryotic OFF-riboswitches that downregulate internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation in response to their ligands.
PubMed:Phosphorylation of calcineurin B-like (CBL) calcium sensor proteins by their CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) is required for full activity of CBL-CIPK complexes toward their target proteins.
PubMed:Cell-free protein expression under macromolecular crowding conditions.
PubMed:Cell-free protein synthesis as a promising expression system for recombinant proteins.
PubMed:Improvement of in vitro-transcribed amber suppressor tRNAs toward higher suppression efficiency in wheat germ extract.
PubMed:Fermented wheat germ extract--nutritional supplement or anticancer drug?
PubMed:A comprehensive panel of turn-on caspase biosensors for investigating caspase specificity and caspase activation pathways.
PubMed:Arabidopsis cell-free extract, ACE, a new in vitro translation system derived from Arabidopsis callus cultures.
PubMed:In vitro production of an active neurotrophic factor, neuregulin-1: qualitative comparison of different cell-free translation systems.
PubMed:Specific in situ visualization of plasma cells producing antibodies against Porphyromonas gingivalis in gingival radicular cyst: application of the enzyme-labeled antigen method.
PubMed:Promising cytotoxic activity profile of fermented wheat germ extract (Avemar®) in human cancer cell lines.
PubMed:Rational design of artificial riboswitches based on ligand-dependent modulation of internal ribosome entry in wheat germ extract and their applications as label-free biosensors.
PubMed:Antimicrobial activities of 1,4-benzoquinones and wheat germ extract.
PubMed:Development of high-yield autofluorescent protein microarrays using hybrid cell-free expression with combined Escherichia coli S30 and wheat germ extracts.
PubMed:Characterization and promoter analysis of a cotton RING-type ubiquitin ligase (E3) gene.
PubMed:Viroids and RNA silencing: mechanism, role in viroid pathogenicity and development of viroid-resistant plants.
PubMed:Avemar (wheat germ extract) in cancer prevention and treatment.
PubMed:Elements regulating Potato leafroll virus sgRNA1 translation are located within the coding sequences of the coat protein and read-through domain.
PubMed:Biofunction-assisted sensors based on a new method for converting aptazyme activity into reporter protein expression with high efficiency in wheat germ extract.
PubMed:Aptazyme-based biosensors using a eukaryotic cell-free translation system.
PubMed:Stem-loop structure of Cocksfoot mottle virus RNA is indispensable for programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting.
PubMed:Fermented wheat germ extract (avemar) in the treatment of cardiac remodeling and metabolic symptoms in rats.
PubMed:Avemar, a nontoxic fermented wheat germ extract, attenuates the growth of sensitive and 5-FdUrd/Ara-C cross-resistant H9 human lymphoma cells through induction of apoptosis.
PubMed:Human Gene and Protein Database (HGPD): a novel database presenting a large quantity of experiment-based results in human proteomics.
PubMed:Efficient cell-free production of olfactory receptors: detergent optimization, structure, and ligand binding analyses.
PubMed:Context-influenced cap-independent translation of Tombusvirus mRNAs in vitro.
PubMed:Adjuvant fermented wheat germ extract (Avemar) nutraceutical improves survival of high-risk skin melanoma patients: a randomized, pilot, phase II clinical study with a 7-year follow-up.
PubMed:In vitro translation of plant viral RNA.
PubMed:Turnip mosaic virus VPg interacts with Arabidopsis thaliana eIF(iso)4E and inhibits in vitro translation.
PubMed:A set of ligation-independent in vitro translation vectors for eukaryotic protein production.
PubMed:Nascent peptide-mediated translation elongation arrest of Arabidopsis thaliana CGS1 mRNA occurs autonomously.
PubMed:In vitro translation.
PubMed:Potyvirus genome-linked protein, VPg, directly affects wheat germ in vitro translation: interactions with translation initiation factors eIF4F and eIFiso4F.
PubMed:The 3' cap-independent translation element of Barley yellow dwarf virus binds eIF4F via the eIF4G subunit to initiate translation.
PubMed:Interaction of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin with the eukaryotic protein synthesis system.
PubMed:Fermented wheat germ extract (avemar) inhibits adjuvant arthritis.
PubMed:In vitro translation with [34S]-labeled methionine, selenomethionine, and telluromethionine.
PubMed:Efficiency of cell-free protein synthesis based on a crude cell extract from Escherichia coli, wheat germ, and rabbit reticulocytes.
PubMed:Avemar, a nontoxic fermented wheat germ extract, induces apoptosis and inhibits ribonucleotide reductase in human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells.
PubMed:Cap- and initiator tRNA-dependent initiation of TYMV polyprotein synthesis by ribosomes: evaluation of the Trojan horse model for TYMV RNA translation.
PubMed:Performance of expression vector, pTD1, in insect cell-free translation system.
PubMed:Effect of Avemar--a fermented wheat germ extract--on rheumatoid arthritis. Preliminary data.
PubMed:In vitro selection of translational regulatory elements.
PubMed:Leader sequence of a plant ribosomal protein gene with complementarity to the 18S rRNA triggers in vitro cap-independent translation.
PubMed:The VPgPro protein of Turnip mosaic virus: in vitro inhibition of translation from a ribonuclease activity.
PubMed:Advances in genome-wide protein expression using the wheat germ cell-free system.
PubMed:Reactivation of creatine kinase by dithiothreitol prior to use in an in vitro translation extract.
PubMed:[Fermented wheat germ extract in the supportive therapy of colorectal cancer].
PubMed:Stabilization of affinity-tagged recombinant protein during/after its production in a cell-free system using wheat-germ extract.
PubMed:Fermented wheat germ extract (Avemar) in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases.
PubMed:Synergistic effect of Avemar on proinflammatory cytokine production and Ras-mediated cell activation.
PubMed:Immunologic and biochemical effects of the fermented wheat germ extract Avemar.
PubMed:The efficacy of tamoxifen in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells is enhanced by a medical nutriment.
PubMed:Simultaneous in vitro protein synthesis using solid-phase DNA template.
PubMed:Testing the efficacy of fermented wheat germ extract against Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection of chickens.
PubMed:Fermented wheat germ extract reduces chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in pediatric cancer patients.
PubMed:Cell-free protein synthesis systems: increasing their performance and applications.
PubMed:Requirement of different mitochondrial targeting sequences of the yeast mitochondrial transcription factor Mtf1p when synthesized in alternative translation systems.
PubMed:An aspartic proteinase gene family in the filamentous fungus Botrytis cinerea contains members with novel features.
PubMed:Establishment of a cell-free system to study the activation of Chk2.
PubMed:Conservation of RNA structures enables TNV and BYDV 5' and 3' elements to cooperate synergistically in cap-independent translation.
PubMed:Biochemical dissection of RNA silencing in plants.
PubMed:Efficient synthesis of a disulfide-containing protein through a batch cell-free system from wheat germ.
PubMed:A teratocyte gene from a parasitic wasp that is associated with inhibition of insect growth and development inhibits host protein synthesis.
PubMed:Detoxification of the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol by a UDP-glucosyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana.
PubMed:Investigations on the in vitro import ability of mitochondrial precursor proteins synthesized in wheat germ transcription-translation extract.
PubMed:Synergism of the 3'-untranslated region and an internal ribosome entry site differentially enhances the translation of a plant virus coat protein.
PubMed:A biochemical framework for RNA silencing in plants.
PubMed:Fermented wheat germ extract inhibits glycolysis/pentose cycle enzymes and induces apoptosis through poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation in Jurkat T-cell leukemia tumor cells.
PubMed:Identification of the subgenomic mRNAs that encode 6-kDa movement protein and Hsp70 homolog of Beet yellows virus.
PubMed:The 5' and 3' extremities of the satellite tobacco necrosis virus translational enhancer domain contribute differentially to stimulation of translation.
PubMed:Action of boron at the molecular level: effects on transcription and translation in an acellular system.
PubMed:Fermented wheat germ extract induces apoptosis and downregulation of major histocompatibility complex class I proteins in tumor T and B cell lines.
PubMed:Molecular cloning and characterization of sphingolipid ceramide N-deacylase from a marine bacterium, Shewanella alga G8.
PubMed:Wheat germ extract inhibits experimental colon carcinogenesis in F-344 rats.
PubMed:A sequence required for -1 ribosomal frameshifting located four kilobases downstream of the frameshift site.
PubMed:Wheat germ extract decreases glucose uptake and RNA ribose formation but increases fatty acid synthesis in MIA pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.
PubMed:Role of individual disulfide bonds in the structural maturation of a low molecular weight glutenin subunit.
PubMed:Functionality of the STNV translational enhancer domain correlates with affinity for two wheat germ factors.
PubMed:Apoptosis of Mo7e leukemia cells is associated with the cleavage of Bcl-2 into a shortened fragment that is not functional for heterodimerization with Bcl-2 and Bax.
PubMed:Wheat cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase complements an ACC1 null mutation in yeast.
PubMed:Characterization and translational regulation of the arginine decarboxylase gene in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).
PubMed:Role of the ribosome in sequence-specific regulation of membrane targeting and translocation of P-glycoprotein signal-anchor transmembrane segments.
PubMed:MSC, a new benzoquinone-containing natural product with antimetastatic effect.
PubMed:Regulation of -1 ribosomal frameshifting directed by cocksfoot mottle sobemovirus genome.
PubMed:First clinical data of a natural immunomodulator in colorectal cancer.
PubMed:Ribosome shunting in the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA leader is a special case of reinitiation of translation functioning in plant and animal systems.
PubMed:A primary determinant of cap-independent translation is located in the 3'-proximal region of the tomato bushy stunt virus genome.
PubMed:Identification of genes encoding for the cocksfoot mottle virus proteins.
PubMed:TOP mRNAs are translationally inhibited by a titratable repressor in both wheat germ extract and reticulocyte lysate.
PubMed:Effect of MSC on the immune response of mice.
PubMed:Multi-ubiquitination of a nascent membrane protein produced in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate.
PubMed:Nucleotide sequences and functional characterization of two tobacco UAG suppressor tRNA(Gln) isoacceptors and their genes.
PubMed:Detection of the membrane-retained carboxy-terminal tail containing polypeptides of the amyloid precursor protein in tissue from Alzheimer's disease brain.
PubMed:Rice ragged stunt oryzavirus genome segment S4 could encode an RNA dependent RNA polymerase and a second protein of unknown function.
PubMed:Further characterisation of the coronavirus IBV ORF 1a products encoded by the 3C-like proteinase domain and the flanking regions.
PubMed:[Stabilized reaction mixture for in vitro mRNA translation].
PubMed:Effect of Avemar and Avemar + vitamin C on tumor growth and metastasis in experimental animals.
PubMed:Phosphatase-immunodepleted cell-free protein synthesis system.
PubMed:In vitro translation of messenger RNA in a wheat germ extract cell-free system.
PubMed:Cloning of human polyubiquitin cDNAs and a ubiquitin-binding assay involving its in vitro translation product.
PubMed:Selective inhibition of cell-free translation by oligonucleotides targeted to a mRNA hairpin structure.
PubMed:Wheat cytoplasmic arginine tRNA isoacceptor with a U*CG anticodon is an efficient UGA suppressor in vitro.
PubMed:The 5'-untranslated region of GLUT1 glucose transporter mRNA causes differential regulation of the translational rate in plant and animal systems.
PubMed:Identification of a novel, non-snRNP protein complex containing U1A protein.
PubMed:Characterization of nuclear tRNA(Tyr) introns: their evolution from red algae to higher plants.
PubMed:Characterization of murine monoclonal antibodies against the Ro52 autoantigen.
PubMed:Differential resistance to proteinase K digestion of the yeast prion-like (Ure2p) protein synthesized in vitro in wheat germ extract and rabbit reticulocyte lysate cell-free translation systems.
PubMed:In vitro study of the NS2-3 protease of hepatitis C virus.
PubMed:Virion swelling is not required for cotranslational disassembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus in vitro.
PubMed:A translation regulatory particle containing the Xenopus oocyte Y box protein mRNP3+4.
PubMed:The Rate of Phaseolin Assembly Is Controlled by the Glucosylation State of Its N-Linked Oligosaccharide Chains.
PubMed:Partial purification and characterization of nuclear ribonuclease P from wheat.
PubMed:Identification of a Drosophila 60S ribosomal protein.
PubMed:Inhibition of human TNF alpha and LT in cell-free extracts and in cell culture by antisense oligonucleotides.
PubMed:In vitro inhibition of hepatitis C virus gene expression by chemically modified antisense oligodeoxynucleotides.
PubMed:UGA suppression by tRNACmCATrp occurs in diverse virus RNAs due to a limited influence of the codon context.
PubMed:Mutant conformation of p53 translated in vitro or in vivo requires functional HSP90.
PubMed:Cloning and expression of cDNA encoding protein synthesis elongation factor-2 kinase.
PubMed:Production of radiolabeled neuropeptide precursors by in vitro transcription and translation.
PubMed:The E6 variant proteins E6I-E6IV of human papillomavirus 16: expression in cell free systems and bacteria and study of their interaction with p53.
PubMed:Differential stability of zein mRNA in developing corn kernel.
PubMed:mRNA stabilization in continuous flow translation system.
PubMed:The tRNATyr multigene family of Triticum aestivum: genome organization, sequence analyses and maturation of intron-containing pre-tRNAs in wheat germ extract.
PubMed:The translational cis-regulatory element of mammalian ribosomal protein mRNAs is recognized by the plant translational apparatus.
PubMed:Membrane insertion, processing, and topology of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in microsomal membranes.
PubMed:In vitro translation of messenger RNA in a wheat germ extract cell-free system.
PubMed:Cysteine tRNAs of plant origin as novel UGA suppressors.
PubMed:Structural features of the precursor to mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase responsible for binding to hsp70.
PubMed:Mutations of Arabidopsis thaliana pre-tRNA(Tyr) affecting pseudouridylation of U35.
PubMed:RNase H is responsible for the non-specific inhibition of in vitro translation by 2'-O-alkyl chimeric oligonucleotides: high affinity or selectivity, a dilemma to design antisense oligomers.
PubMed:Involvement of cytoplasmic factors regulating the membrane orientation of P-glycoprotein sequences.
PubMed:The G protein gamma subunit. Requirements for dimerization with beta subunits.
PubMed:PSII-T, a new nuclear encoded lumenal protein from photosystem II. Targeting and processing in isolated chloroplasts.
PubMed:[Department of neurochemistry].
PubMed:The presence of tRNA pseudogenes in mammalia and plants and their absence in yeast may account for different specificities of pre-tRNA processing enzymes.
PubMed:Continuously coupled transcription-translation system for the production of rice cytoplasmic aldolase.
PubMed:The putative replicase of the cocksfoot mottle sobemovirus is translated as a part of the polyprotein by -1 ribosomal frameshift.
PubMed:Small satellite of arabis mosaic virus: autolytic processing of in vitro transcripts of (+) and (-) polarity and infectivity of (+) strand transcripts.
PubMed:Translation using a wheat-germ extract.
PubMed:The general mitochondrial processing peptidase from wheat is integrated into the cytochrome bc1-complex of the respiratory chain.
PubMed:Study of cell-free protein synthesis in aqueous two-phase systems.
PubMed:Target-specific arrest of mRNA translation by antisense 2'-O-alkyloligoribonucleotides.
PubMed:Prolonged cell-free protein synthesis in a batch system using wheat germ extract.
PubMed:Relative contribution of photo-addition, helper oligonucleotide and RNase H to the antisense effect of psoralen-oligonucleotide conjugates, on in vitro translation of Leishmania mRNAs.
PubMed:Three Tetrahymena tRNA(Gln) isoacceptors as tools for studying unorthodox codon recognition and codon context effects during protein synthesis in vitro.
PubMed:Dependence of the folding and import of the precursor to mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase on the nature of the cell-free translation system.
PubMed:An increased rate of cell-free protein synthesis by condensing wheat-germ extract with ultrafiltration membranes.
PubMed:Characterization of in-vitro-translated human regulatory and catalytic subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinases.
PubMed:Cell-free synthesis of vitellin in the shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus (de Haan).
PubMed:A method for in vitro synthesis of unglycosylated recombinant complement component C9.
PubMed:Detection of a 45 kD protein derived from the N terminus of the pea seedborne mosaic potyvirus polyprotein in vivo and in vitro.
PubMed:Structural features which control folding of homologous proteins in cell-free translation systems. The effect of a mitochondrial-targeting presequence on aspartate aminotransferase.
PubMed:Recombinant iron-regulatory factor functions as an iron-responsive-element-binding protein, a translational repressor and an aconitase. A functional assay for translational repression and direct demonstration of the iron switch.
PubMed:[A cell-free translation system based on mollicute ribosomes].
PubMed:Effects of 5-fluorouracil substitution on the RNA conformation and in vitro translation of thymidylate synthase messenger RNA.
PubMed:Synthesis of preparative amounts of biologically active interleukin-6 using a continuous-flow cell-free translation system.
PubMed:The 3'-terminal untranslated region of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 4 facilitates the RNA entry into translation in a cell-free system.
PubMed:Expression of adult globin mRNAs in hamster yolk-sac erythroid cells during ontogeny.
PubMed:Possible role of phosphorylation in the function of chicken MyoD1.
PubMed:Production of dihydrofolate reductase by an improved continuous flow cell-free translation system using wheat germ extract.
PubMed:Nucleotide sequence and in vitro translation of the coat protein gene of cymbidium mosaic virus.
PubMed:[Promoting effect of panaxatriol ginsenoside on gene expression of human interleukin-1].
PubMed:Differential response to frameshift signals in eukaryotic and prokaryotic translational systems.
PubMed:Antisense effect of oligodeoxynucleotides complementary to the mini-exon sequence of the protozoan parasite Leishmania amazonensis.
PubMed:Evaluation of the use of antisense tRNA(met) as an inhibitor for eukaryotic protein synthesis.
PubMed:Characterization of ribonuclease H activities present in two cell-free protein synthesizing systems, the wheat germ extract and the rabbit reticulocyte lysate.
PubMed:Targeting of antisense DNA: comparison of activity of anti-rabbit beta-globin oligodeoxyribonucleoside phosphorothioates with computer predictions of mRNA folding.
PubMed:Pseudouridine in the anticodon G psi A of plant cytoplasmic tRNA(Tyr) is required for UAG and UAA suppression in the TMV-specific context.
PubMed:RNase H-mediated inhibition of translation by antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides: use of backbone modification to improve specificity.
PubMed:Intron excision from tRNA precursors by plant splicing endonuclease requires unique features of the mature tRNA domain.
PubMed:The leaky UGA termination codon of tobacco rattle virus RNA is suppressed by tobacco chloroplast and cytoplasmic tRNAs(Trp) with CmCA anticodon.
PubMed:Preparative in vitro synthesis of bioactive human interleukin-2 in a continuous flow translation system.
PubMed:Production of an enzymatic active protein using a continuous flow cell-free translation system.
PubMed:The 70-Kilodalton Heat Shock Cognate Can Act as a Molecular Chaperone during the Membrane Translocation of a Plant Secretory Protein Precursor.
PubMed:Ribosomal frameshifting requires a pseudoknot in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae double-stranded RNA virus.
PubMed:The syntheses of plastocyanin and cytochrome c-553 are regulated by copper at the pre-translational level in a green alga, Pediastrum boryanum.
PubMed:Expression of active iron regulatory factor from a full-length human cDNA by in vitro transcription/translation.
PubMed:Two intron-containing pre-tRNAs(Tyr) from Triticum aestivum are efficiently processed and spliced in homologous cell-free extract.
PubMed:Human papillomavirus type 18 E6*, E6, and E7 protein synthesis in cell-free translation systems and comparison of E6 and E7 in vitro translation products to proteins immunoprecipitated from human epithelial cells.
PubMed:Expression of nuclear tRNA(Tyr) genes from Arabidopsis thaliana in HeLa cell and wheat germ extracts.
PubMed:Plant nonsense suppressor tRNA(Tyr) genes are expressed at very low levels in vitro due to inefficient splicing of the intron-containing pre-tRNAs.
PubMed:In vitro expression of a chimeric coat protein gene from Grapevine Fanleaf virus (strain F 13).
PubMed:Precursors of neuropeptides in the marine worm Nereis diversicolor. In vitro translation of a precursor related to human prepro-cholecystokinin and immunolocalization of this precursor in the nervous system.
PubMed:Proper cotranslational insertion of visual rhodopsin into the lipid bilayer occurs in the absence of protein translocation machinery.
PubMed:The relationship between glucocorticoid receptor binding to Hsp90 and receptor function.
PubMed:Use of a cell-free system to identify the vaccinia virus L1R gene product as the major late myristylated virion protein M25.
PubMed:TGA1a, a tobacco DNA-binding protein, increases the rate of preinitiation complex formation in a plant in vitro transcription system [corrected].
PubMed:Specificity of the induction of ferritin synthesis by hemin.
PubMed:Reversible import of apocytochrome c into mitochondria.
PubMed:Glycosylation of nuclear pore protein p62. Reticulocyte lysate catalyzes O-linked N-acetylglucosamine addition in vitro.
PubMed:In contrast to the glucocorticoid receptor, the thyroid hormone receptor is translated in the DNA binding state and is not associated with hsp90.
PubMed:Derepression of ferritin messenger RNA translation by hemin in vitro.
PubMed:Mitochondrial translocation and processing of the precursor to the alpha-subunit of rat liver succinyl-CoA synthetase.
PubMed:Nonstructural protein of parvoviruses B19 and minute virus of mice controls transcription.
PubMed:Proteolytic origin of the 150-kilodalton protein encoded by turnip yellow mosaic virus genomic RNA.
PubMed:Direct evidence that the glucocorticoid receptor binds to hsp90 at or near the termination of receptor translation in vitro.
PubMed:Stop-transfer activity of hydrophobic sequences depends on the translation system.
PubMed:Phosphoroselenoate oligodeoxynucleotides: synthesis, physico-chemical characterization, anti-sense inhibitory properties and anti-HIV activity.
PubMed:Comparative activity of alpha- and beta-anomeric oligonucleotides on rabbit beta globin synthesis: inhibitory effect of cap targeted alpha-oligonucleotides.
PubMed:Glucagon synthesis with mRNA preparation of a glucagon-producing tumor (IT-1).
PubMed:Interaction of antibodies to synthetic peptides of proNGF with in vitro synthesized NGF precursors.
PubMed:Southern bean mosaic virus RNA remains associated with swollen virions during translation in wheat germ cell-free extracts.
PubMed:A cellular protein that binds to the 5'-noncoding region of poliovirus RNA: implications for internal translation initiation.
PubMed:Comparative inhibition of rabbit globin mRNA translation by modified antisense oligodeoxynucleotides.
PubMed:In vitro studies on the translocation of acid phosphatase into the endoplasmic reticulum of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Binding of a soluble factor of Escherichia coli to preproteins does not require ATP and appears to be the first step in protein export.
PubMed:Selenium-containing tRNA(Glu) and tRNA(Lys) from Escherichia coli: purification, codon specificity and translational activity.
PubMed:Wheat germ splicing endonuclease is highly specific for plant pre-tRNAs.
PubMed:Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase from wheat germ.
PubMed:Translation of globin RNA spliced in vitro.
PubMed:Studies on the mechanism of translational enhancement by the 5'-leader sequence of tobacco mosaic virus RNA.
PubMed:Translational efficiency of poliovirus mRNA: mapping inhibitory cis-acting elements within the 5' noncoding region.
PubMed:In vitro transcription and translational efficiency of chimeric SP6 messenger RNAs devoid of 5' vector nucleotides.
PubMed:Regulation of varicella zoster virus gene 27 translation in vitro by upstream sequences.
PubMed:In vitro translation and analysis of early events in protein synthesis initiation in nonreticulocyte Mammalian cells.
PubMed:Processing of SP1 precursor in a cell-free system from poly(A+) mRNA of human placenta.
PubMed:Characterization of A units released from the poly(A) tract of rabbit globin mRNA during protein synthesis: possible role of the released ATP in synthesizing protein.
PubMed:Characterization of the internal initiation of translation on the vesicular stomatitis virus phosphoprotein mRNA.
PubMed:Selective and accurate initiation of transcription at the T-DNA promoter in a soluble chromatin extract from wheat germ.
PubMed:The 3' untranslated region of the human interferon-beta mRNA has an inhibitory effect on translation.
PubMed:Enzymatic amplification of translation inhibition of rabbit beta-globin mRNA mediated by anti-messenger oligodeoxynucleotides covalently linked to intercalating agents.
PubMed:A direct evidence for the involvement of poly(A) in protein synthesis.
PubMed:The 5'-leader sequence of tobacco mosaic virus RNA enhances the expression of foreign gene transcripts in vitro and in vivo.
PubMed:The gene coding for tropoelastin is represented as a single copy sequence in the haploid sheep genome.
PubMed:Anti-messenger oligodeoxynucleotides: specific inhibition of rabbit beta-globin synthesis in wheat germ extracts and Xenopus oocytes.
PubMed:Determination of amylase activity in serum by using a wheat germ inhibitor with the Du Pont aca.
PubMed:The common 5' terminal sequence on trypanosome mRNAs: a target for anti-messenger oligodeoxynucleotides.
PubMed:Translocation of murine interleukin 2 into microsomes during translation in a cell-free system.
PubMed:Swelling of isometric and of bacilliform plant virus nucleocapsids is required for virus-specific protein synthesis in vitro.
PubMed:Inhibition of rabbit globin mRNA translation by sequence-specific oligodeoxyribonucleotides.
PubMed:The effect of aging on the structure and function of liver messenger RNA.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of Z-DNA binding proteins from wheat germ.
PubMed:Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of cDNA for sporamin, the major soluble protein of sweet potato tuberous roots.
PubMed:Regulation of synthesis of nitrite reductase in pea leaves: in-vivo and in-vitro studies.
PubMed:Biosynthesis of ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase. Evidence for the formation of a functional preholoenzyme in the cytoplasmic compartment.
PubMed:Translational discrimination between the four RNAs of alfalfa mosaic virus. A quantitative evaluation.
PubMed:In vitro translation of messenger RNA in a wheat germ extract cell-free system.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of a translation inhibitor from human term placenta.
PubMed:In vitro translation of infectious flacherie virus RNA in a wheat germ and a rabbit reticulocyte system.
PubMed:Nutritional control of storage-protein synthesis in developing grain of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).
PubMed:Isolation of intact polysomes from mechanically dehulled developing grain.
PubMed:Phytoferritin is synthesized in vitro as a high-molecular-weight precursor. Studies on the synthesis and the uptake in vitro of the precursors of ferritin and ferredoxin by intact chloroplasts.
PubMed:Lucerne transient streak virus RNA and its translation in rabbit reticulocyte lysate and wheat germ extract.
PubMed:Multiple molecular forms of the gibberellin-induced alpha-amylase from the aleurone layers of barley seeds.
PubMed:Regulation of Plant Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase by Adenylate Nucleotides.
PubMed:Construction of a synthetic messenger RNA encoding a membrane protein.
PubMed:Effects of antinuclear autoantibodies on RNA polymerase.
PubMed:The effect of a ribonuclease inhibitor from human placenta on the in vitro synthesis of human placental proteins.
PubMed:Comparison of three different cell-free systems for turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA translation.
PubMed:mRNA secondary structure as a determinant in cap recognition and initiation complex formation. ATP-Mg2+ independent cross-linking of cap binding proteins to m7I-capped inosine-substituted reovirus mRNA.
PubMed:A ribosomal defect in dystrophic hamsters.
PubMed:A study of the heat-shock response in Neurospora crassa.
PubMed:Immunoelectron microscopic study of somatostatin biosynthesis in dog pancreas.
PubMed:Purification and properties of protein methylase II from wheat germ.
PubMed:Cytochrome c specific methylase from wheat germ.
PubMed:Expression of Middle-Component RNA of Cowpea Mosaic Virus: In Vitro Generation of a Precursor to Both Capsid Proteins by a Bottom-Component RNA-Encoded Protease from Infected Cells.
PubMed:Early auxin-regulated polyadenylylated mRNA sequences in pea stem tissue.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of IFN-gamma mRNA derived from mitogen-induced human splenocytes.
PubMed:Enzymic Mechanism of Starch Breakdown in Germinating Rice Seeds: 10. IN VIVO AND IN VITRO SYNTHESIS OF alpha-AMYLASE IN RICE SEED SCUTELLUM.
PubMed:The cell-free protein synthesis system from the 'slime' mutant of Neurospora crassa. Preparation and characterisation of importance of 7-methylguanosine for translation of viral and cellular mRNAs.
PubMed:In Vitro Synthesis of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Storage Proteins.
PubMed:Variations in brain cortical polysome translation products among rats of the same strain.
PubMed:Preproceruloplasmin is a primary product of cell-free translation of ceruloplasmin messenger RNA.
PubMed:Initiation of reovirus transcription by inosine 5'-triphosphate and properties of 7-methylinosine-capped, inosine-substituted messenger ribonucleic acids.
PubMed:Messenger RNA for cataractous lens proteins are also present on normal lens polyribosomes.
PubMed:In vitro suppression of UGA codons in a mitochondrial mRNA.
PubMed:Turnover of the poly(A) moiety of mRNA in wheat-germ extract.
PubMed:Extraction and translation of collagen mRNA from fetal calf skin.
PubMed:Biosynthesis of the brain-specific 14-3-2 protein in a cell-free system from wheat germ extract directed with poly(A)-containing RNA from rat brain.
PubMed:Role of mammalian RNase inhibitor in cell-free protein synthesis.
PubMed:Protein synthesis in imbibing wheat embryos.
PubMed:Biosynthesis of ribosomal proteins by poly(A)-containing mRNAs from rat liver in a wheat germ cell-free system and sizes of mRNAs coding ribosomal proteins.
PubMed:Decrease in the rate of protein synthesis by polysomes from cultured fibroblasts of patients and carriers with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
PubMed:Synthesis and translation of mRNA containing 5'-terminal 7-ethylguanosine cap.
PubMed:Binding of ribosomes to 5'-terminal leader sequences of eukaryotic messenger RNAs.
PubMed:Translation in vitro of Tetrahymena pyriformis polyadenylated mRNA. Identification of tubulin amongst the translated products and demonstration of its heterogeneity.
PubMed:Plant histone 2 from wheat germ, a family of histone H2a variants. Partial amino acid sequences.
PubMed:Peptide mapping of heterogeneous protein samples.
PubMed:Characterization of a UGA-suppressing serine tRNA from Schizosaccharomyces pombe with the help of a new in vitro assay system for eukaryotic suppressor tRNAs.
PubMed:N-terminal sequences of uteroglobin and its precursor.
PubMed:In Vitro Synthesis of a Precursor to the Methionine-rich Polypeptide of the Zein Fraction of Corn.
PubMed:mRNA-directed biosynthesis of alpha subunit of thyrotropin: translation in cell-free and whole-cell systems.
PubMed:5'-Terminal 7-methylguanosine and mRNA function. The effect of enzymatic decapping and of cap analogs on translation of tobacco-mosaic-virus RNA and globin mRNA in vitro.
PubMed:Decrease in functional albumin mRNA during estrogen-induced vitellogenin biosynthesis in avian liver.
PubMed:Growth-related fluctuation in messenger RNA utilization in animal cells.
PubMed:Partial purification and characterization of rat-liver messenger RNA coding for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP).
PubMed:A simple procedure for the isolation and purification of protamine messenger ribonucleic acid from trout testis.
PubMed:Importance of 5'-terminal blocking structure to stabilize mRNA in eukaryotic protein synthesis.
PubMed:Physical and functional heterogeneity in TYMV RNA: evidence for the existence of an independent messenger coding for coat protein.
PubMed:Yeast cytochrome c messenger RNA. In vitro translation and specific immunoprecipitation of the CYC1 gene product.
PubMed:Light-induced enzyme synthesis in cell suspension cultures of Petroselinum hortense. Demonstration in a heterologous cell-free system of rapid changes in the rate of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase synthesis.
PubMed:Simultaneous translation of structural and nonstructural proteins from Semliki-forest-virus RNA in two eukaryotic systems in vitro.
PubMed:Elevated dihydrofolate reductase messenger RNA levels in methotrexate-resistant BHK cells.
PubMed:Pre-proparathyroid hormone: fidelity of the translation of parathyroid messenger RNA by extracts of wheat germ.
PubMed:Pregrowth hormone: product of the translation in vitro of messenger RNA coding for growth hormone.
PubMed:Ribosome binding to reovirus mRNA in protein synthesis requires 5' terminal 7-methylguanosine.
PubMed:Substitution reactions of linoleic acid hydroperoxide isomerase.
PubMed:Pre-proparathyroid hormone: a direct translation product of parathyroid messenger RNA.
PubMed:Enzymatic dehydration of 3-hydroxymethyloxindole.
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